วันพฤหัสบดีที่ 29 มกราคม พ.ศ. 2558

Ocellated pufferfish picture




The scientific name of  this fish isMonotrete cutcutia , they are in the family fish who have 4 teeth (Tetraodontidae) it is a small fish like puffer fish " Sompong ". The body is flat fin slightly smaller body color or dark green. Flecked yellow or fade over the body. After dark stripes across Sides with the big black eyes, red tail with red or pink that is approximately 4-5 cm

They live in the streams and rivers in the south. By hiding under rocks or leaves the underwater for find a food including fish, crabs, snails, tadpoles and small shrimp.

There are other names, such as "dwarf puffer" or "puffer green points" and so on.


 picture credit :

Tarnandon Preechasatapon


Channa pleuropthalma picture



Channa pleuropthalma picture by Jibran Mohammed Shariff 

Fish data : Discus Fish cihlid




The majestic, graceful, and dignified Discus fish has been described as the "King of the Aquarium Fishes" for good reason. They are highly esteemed within the fish keeping hobby due to their dramatic coloring, refined shape, and regal bearing and are widely considered to be the pinnacle of tropical fish keeping. These quiet, peaceful, and elegant creatures inspire appreciation and dedication like no other fish.

Discus are considered part of the cichlid family and are categorized into three species, two of which have been long time standards and one which has been relatively recently described. The Green Discus Symphysodon aequifasciatus and its close relative the Heckel Discus or Red DiscusSymphysodon discus are the most recognized species. These two are found in the central and lower Amazon regions and are very similar in coloring and behavioral disposition. Both are considered valid species by the scientific community. The third species, the Blue Discus or Brown DiscusSymphysodon haraldi, was recently identified by Mr. Heiko Bleher and is awaiting further work to determine identification and validation.

There are many local color varieties, possibly due to natural hybridization, though most available Discus today are tank bred varieties. Through selective breeding a wide variety of body shapes, colors, and patterns are being produced. These tank bred varieties are widely divergent from the wild caught discus and tend to be better adapted to tank life, requiring less stringent care than their wild caught brethren. Even so, tank bred Discus are more demanding of good water quality, require a larger aquarium, and are more expensive than many tropical fish.

Discus were first imported into the United States and Europe in the 1930's and 1940's. Early efforts to ship and keep these fish proved exceptionally difficult, but much more is now known about their needs and requirements. An experienced and dedicated aquarist will find these fish a challenging and rewarding experience.

Discus are native to the South American countries of Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, and Columbia and are found inhabitating the tributaries of the Amazon River within those countries. These fish had previously been divided into several suggested species along with a number of subspecies, however, more recently there have been revisions of the Discus genus. From the study results published in the Journal of Fish Biology by Bleher, et al in 2007; and by Ready, Kullander, and Ferreira in 2006, three species are currently acknowledged and the classification of subspecies was eliminated.
The three acknowledged species include the Green DiscusSymphysodon aequifasciatus and the Heckel Discus or Red Discus Symphysodon discus. These are both considered valid species by the scientific community. The third species, identified by Heiko Bleher, is the Blue Discus or Brown DiscusSymphysodon haraldi. It is awaiting further work to determine identification and validation.

  • Green Discus Symphysodon aequifasciatus
    The Green Discus was described by Pellegrin in 1904. They originate in the central Amazon region, mostly from the Putumayo River in northern Peru, and from Brazil near Santarem and the lake of Tefé. Other common names they are known by are Red Spotted Discus and Tefé Discus.
  • Heckel Discus Symphysodon discus
    The Heckel Discus or Red Discus was described in 1840 by Dr. Johann Jacob Heckel. They are native to South America, originating from Brazil in the Rio Negro, Rio Trombetas north of the Amazon, and from the Rio Abacaxis south of the Amazon. This species, also commonly known as the Red Discus, is a bit more unique. See the Heckel Discus or Red Discus page for more information on this species
  • Blue Discus Symphysodon haraldi
    The Blue Discus was described by Schultz in 1960. This species can be found in the lower Amazon region. It is recognized but is awaiting further work to determine its validation. Other common names they are known by are Brown Discus.

A more recently discovered discus found in the western Amazon regions in 1959 is distinguished by a unique color form, sporting red spots on the anal fin and the body. Some have suggested that it be identified as Symphysodon tarzoo. However in a discussion with Mr. Bleher, he identifies it is the Green Discus. He says, "S. aequifasciatus - the Green Discus is found only in some areas of western Amazonia" and that... the name S. tarzoo is a synonym (a nomen nudum, or not an existing name)".
Discus fish live in the still or slow moving waters along the banks where they hide among tangled roots and branches. They feed on insect larvae, insects, and planktonic invertebrates.

The Green Discus S. aequifasciatus, a.k.a. Red Spotted Discus or Tefé Discus, are moderate in size and reach a lenght of about 6" (15 cm). Interestingly, though tank bred individuals can be highly variable in color and patterning, the wild caught individuals tend to be rather bland and unremarkable.
Instead of the dramatic coloring of the tank bred Discus, the wild Green Discus presents a dark brownish to green body. They have nine vertical bars along the body, but lack a bold centrally located bar. They have irregular metallic streaks along the belly, dorsal fin, anal fins, and on the dorsal area of the body of green, blue, or turquoise.

The Green Discus are perhaps the most popular of the three discus species. They are also the Discus which has been the focus of most of the development work and thus more is known about them and their classification information than any of the other Discus. 
Some color variants of the Green Discus include:
  • Solid colored varieties
    The desire to develop a solid blue color variety was one of the first challenges facing early Discus keepers and breeders. Once the variety was developed, the challenge was adapted to produce a solid red Discus. This hasn't been achieved quite yet, but many dedicated breeders are continuing to work on it. 
  • Turquoise varieties
    Of the many strains of captive bred Discus, the turquoise varieties are the most available. They are generally found in greens or blues. They can be solid or have vertical bars, and some will have beautiful effervescent color streaking.
    They have names such as Brilliant Turquoise Discus, Red Turquoise Discus, Giant Turquoise Discus, and Cobalt Turquoise Discus.
  • Red varieties
    The Red Spotted Discus or Tefé Discus is one of the most striking variants. It has red spots on its belly and tail, and sometimes over the entire body. It is also quite rare and expensive.
  • "Royal" - Streaked varieties
    These are popular strains that have blue or green streaks over the entire body. They are called the 'Royal' Green Discus or 'Royal' Blue Discus.

Blue Discus, Brown Discus: Symphysodon haraldi
The Blue Discus S. haraldi, a.k.a the Brown Discus, is considered one of the most beautiful and hardiest discus. They reach a length of about 5 inches (13 cm) and have a much more varied color pattern and can have a larger number of vertical bars (8 to 16) than either of the other two species of discus. They are not as colorful as the Green Discus or the hybrids.
Other common names they are known by include Common Discus, Gypsy, Semi Royal Blue, and Royal Blue. Although these two are the same species, there are some characteristic differences between the two types.

  • Blue Discus varieties
    Blue Discus varieties are very similar to the Brown varieties, though the Blues tend to have a slightly longer body while the Brown's is more rounded. They have a darker, almost purple brown body and nine vertical bars without a bold central bar. They often have blue horizontal stripes on the head, dorsal and ventral fins. The face is a deeper brown.

    Some hybrid strains are called Cobalt Discus, Powder Blue Discus, and Sky Blue Discus. A real beauty is the Cobalt Blue Discus. It is almost entirely blue and sometimes presents a dazzling metallic sheen. Other specialties will sometimes have blood red spots on the dorsal fins.

  • Brown Discus varieties
    Brown Discus varieties originate in the lower Amazon region in Brazil. They have light to dark brown bodies (sometimes reddish) and nine vertical bars (without the bold central bar). There are irregular streaks on the upper and lower fin areas. They usually display a yellowish coloring at the base of the dorsal fin, around the eye, and on the snout.

    They were regularly kept for a long time, however they are not as colorful as other varieties and are now less available.
Redder body colors are sometimes enhanced by adding such things as prawn eggs to their diet, or by adding chemicals to their water. This enhancement is not permanent and will fade in a couple of weeks. (The pictures shown here are captive bred hybrids).


The Discus should be kept only by an experienced fish keeper. They are notoriously diffucult to keep and have a reputation of intimidating even very experienced aquarists. One of the more challenging aspects of keeping Discus fish is the process of acclimating them to their new tank. Medium sized or larger Red Discus tend to respond the best to being transferred, yet even they find the process traumatic and stressful. This sensitivity coupled with the fact that Discus tend to grow fairly large implies it would be wise and humane to take steps to ensure they will not be moved very often or caused unwarranted stress. In other words, if you are considering buying a Discus fish you should consider buying an aquarium that will be suitably large enough to accommodate them no matter their size or life cycle. Try to buy aqarium setups that can act as permanent, as opposed to temporary, habitats for your Discus. 

When purchasing a Discus make sure to inspect the fish very well for signs of disease as they are very prone to ich and other stress related diseases that can be transfered into their new home and have a negative reaction on other tankmates.


Since they are carnivorous Discus will generally enjoy a wide variety of all kinds of live and frozen foods. Foods such as both frozen and live brine shrimp, bloodworms, chopped beef heart, and whiteworms are readily eaten by Discus. In addition, tank bred Discus are sometimes known to accept food in a flake or pellet form, though in general most Discus prefer the "real" thing. Be sure your food choices are high in quality and nutrition and that you provide a broad spectrum of different foods. Also, though they are carnivorous, they may enjoy eating small quantities of vegetation based foods and these should be offered every so often if your particular fish enjoys them.

Keep in mind they are slow feeders and take care to ensure they eat plenty of food, especially if they are living with rambunctious and hungry tankmates.

Also note, any live or dead material which is introduced into the aquarium has the potential of introducing dangerous bacteria or parasites into the aquarium. Therefore, it is recommended to quarantine any live foods in a seperate tank prior to feeding them to your Discus.

Discus require a strictly adhered to water change regiment of at least 25% every week. Discus are very sensitive to water fluctuations so make sure to test any water going back into the tank. Make sure when doing water changes to carefully vacuum the substrate throughly. Before vacuuming use a sponge or algae magnet to clean viewing panes and once the removed algae has settled on the bottom start vacuuming. Take great care when cleaning the tank to not cause unwarranted or excess stress to your fish as they are very prone to stress related diseases. 

A minimum 50 gallon aquarium is suitable for a single fish, though a much larger tank would be needed if keeping more. Because these fish are as tall as they are long, taller 'show' type tanks work best. They need good water movement along with strong and efficient filtration. Discus prefer an aquarium with warm, soft, and slightly acidic water; they tend to prefer wamer water than most tropical fish. Lower termperatures have the effect of increasing the Discus' susceptibilty to death and disease.
Discus have a timid nature and dislike moving shadows, excessive vibrations, and overly boisterous tank mates. It is best to keep their aquarium out of areas that have high traffic, lights being turned on and off, or rooms that are noisy. They are also very shy and more active at night.

A planted aquarium with an open area for swimming suits them well, but the plants need t
o be varieties that can tolerate warmer temperatures of 82° F and up. Some good plants selections are rosette plants like the Dwarf Lily Bulbs, Anubias Nana, MicroSword Grass, Jungle Vallisneria, Corkscrew Vallisneria, Water Onions, Ozelot Swords, Rangeri Swords, and Didplis Diandra; some of the aquatic stem plants like Rotala Indica; and some of the fern and moss type plants like the Java Fern and Subulata.

When you are first introducing these fish to your aquarium, refrain from bright lighting and be certain to provide caves and places for the fish to hide. They may initially prefer subdued lighting because of their shyness, but once they become comfortable normal aquarium lighting works fine.
Though difficult to care for and rather picky in their prefered aqaurium setup, Discus can provide great amounts of satisfaction to a diligent and observant fishkeeper.

Unlike many others in the cichlid family, discus are peaceful and highly social. They are not predatory and they do not burrow in the substrate. They are a schooling fish and prefer to be kept in groups of around 6 fish, but may not do very well if kept alone. Several discus can be kept together and they can be kept with some of the more peaceful tropical fish. They are slow feeders and need companions with a similar temperament.

Examples of good community companions would be a pair of dwarf cichlids or some clown loaches. Also a school consisting of 15 - 20 individuals of a single species of tetra works well. Good selections include Characin species like the Cardinal Tetra, Neon Tetra, Rummynose Tetra, Glowlight Tetra, Emperor Tetra, or Congo Tetra. It is suggested that you avoid Angelfishes and Corydoras Catfish, as these fish are prone to carrying internal parasites that can infect the discus.

Discus form nuclear families but will readily cross-breed with other discus. They are egg layers and will attach their eggs to plants, driftwood, rocks, and ornamentation in the aquarium. Though spawning and rearing of fry can be successful in harder water, for fertilization and egg development they require a total hardness no higher than 6° dGH. Water conditions for breeding should be slightly acidic, soft and warm. Have a pH of about 5.5 - 6°, hardness at about 3-10° dGH and have temperatures between 82 - 88° F (27.7 - 31° C).

The female will lay between 200 - 400 eggs which will hatch in about 60 hours. Fry consume a special mucus on the skin of the parents for the first 5 or 6 days.


 Credit :

http://www.atdiscus-jj.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/IMG_2433.JPG

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/discus.php

Fish data : Blood Parrot cichlid



The Blood Parrot is a fascinating looking fish that has been developed in captivity and does not appear in the wild. They have a roundish 'balloon' shaped body and a very small mouth. They are also known as the Bloody Parrot, Blood Parrot Cichlid, and Blood Parrotfish. Perhaps they are called Parrotfish because their nose looks like a 'parrot's' beak.

It is not uncommon for cichlids in captivity to interbreed among themselves. When they are in spawning mode, they will often respond to a fish of the opposite sex whether it is the same species or another fish of a closely related species. While the Blood Parrot's exact geneology is unknown, it is likely the result of such interbreeding between a combination of types of Central American and South American cichlids. 

These fish can be solid in color or have a "calico" patterning or blotching. They come in a variety of colors. ranging from basic pale or bright yellows, to oranges and reds. Dyed fish are often available in purples, pinks, blues, and other colors. These are generally sold as the 'Jellybean Parrot' and 'Bumble Gum Parrot'. There are also other names that describe them by their color such as 'Purple Parrot'. In addition, there are Blood Parrots described by their physical appearance such as the tailfin-less 'Love Heart Parrot' which resembles a heart.

The Blood Parrot will make a wonderful addition to the aquarium of both the beginner and more experienced aquarist. They are a shy and fish and should not be kept with aggressive tank mates. However, if you keep them in a community aquarium with similar sized fish, be aware that they can be territorial. They like an aquarium with lots of rock formations and caves for retreating and hiding. Plants are not essential though they do not harm them.

These fish should not be confused with the Parrot Cichlid Hoplarchus psittacus which is another freshwater cichlid from South America that is quite aggressive. They also have no relation to the saltwater Rivulated Parrotfish Scarus rivulatus (previously Callyodon fasciatus). There is also another popular cichlid hybrid called the Flowerhorn Cichlid. It too is very attractive but much difference in appearance than these Parrotfish.

The Blood Parrot is said to have been bred in Taiwan and the suggested parents are Central and South American cichlids. But it is up to speculation which parents actually produced the Blood Parrot. There are two different sets of parents suggested as the cross which created these hybrids:
First generation:
  • One commonly suggested cross is between two Central American cichlids:
    Midus Cichlid Amphilophus citrinellus (previously Cichlasoma citrinellum) and the Redheaded CichlidParaneetroplus synspilus (previously Cichlasoma synspilum)
  • The second commonly suggested cross is between a Central American cichlid and one of two South American Cichlids:
    the Red Devil Cichlid Amphilophus labiatus (previously Cichlasoma labiatum) and one of either the SeverumHeros severus (also called the Banded Cichlid) or the Blue-eye cichlid Cryptoheros spilurus (previouslyCichlasoma spilurum).
The behavior of the Blood Parrot hybrids is peaceful and shy. This is a characteristic only found in the Severums from South America. The other three Central American cichlids are quite aggressive.
Second generation:
  • A further developed variety is the "Convict Parrot Cichlid". They are a cross between a female hybrid Blood Parrot and a pink male Convict Cichlid Amatitlania nigrofasciata (previously Archocentrus nigrofasciatus and Cichlosoma nigrofasciatum). Some of these fish have been dyed as well, and they are also called the 'Jellybean' Parrot' or 'Bubble Gum' Parrot'.
  • Blood Parrots have reportedly been crossed with other cichlid species such as the Severum Heros severus and the Texas Cichlid Herichthys cyanoguttatus (previously Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum).

There may be other new varieties showing up down the road. In their book "Encyclopedia Of Exotic Tropical Fishes For Freshwater Aquariums", authors Glen S. Axelrod, Brian M. Scott, and Neal Pronek share the views of different hobbyists. They share that "some breeders argue that cross-breeding contributes to scientific knowledge of fish and their reproductive strategies, others believe it is arrogant and unethcal for humans to think they can improve on nature" and "there are over 20,000 known fish species already... so there is no need to create new ones". They also point out that problems can be created by exaggerating physical traits.

The Blood Parrot has a roundish 'balloon' shaped body. They have a very small mouth and perhaps they are called Parrotfish because their nose looks like a parrot's beak. They also have some other distinctions such as their deformed spines which gives them their unique shape and their overly large iris. Because they have exaggerated physical traits sometimes their small mouths do not close normally, making it more difficult for them to eat. Also their egg-shaped bodies make it difficult for them to swim naturally, and so they are awkward and lacking in grace.

They can be solid or have a 'calico' patterning or blotching and are available in a variety of colors from basic pale or bright yellows to oranges and reds. There are also color varieties which are dyed albinos or dyed light colored Blood Parrots. These are generally referred to as the 'Jellybean Parrot' and 'Bumble Gum Parrot', though their names can describe them by color such as the 'Purple Parrot'. Then there are Blood Parrots described by their physical appearance such as the 'Love Heart Parrot', which has no tail fin.

A further developed variety is the Convict Parrot Cichlid, which is also called the 'Jellybean' Parrot or 'Bubble Gum' Parrot'. This is actually a 'double hybrid' fish between a female hybrid Blood Parrot and a pink male Convict Cichlid. Blood Parrots have reportedly been crossed with other cichlid species such as the Severum and the Texas Cichlid. So there may be other new varieties showing up in the future.
All cichlids, along with some saltwater fish such as wrasses and parrotfish, share a common trait of a well-developed pharyngeal set of teeth located in the throat, along with their regular teeth. Cichlids have spiny rays in the back parts of the anal, dorsal, pectoral, and pelvic fins to help discourage predators. The front part of these fins are soft and perfect for precise positions and effortless movements in the water as opposed to fast swimming.

Cichlids have one nostril on each side while other fish have 2 sets. To sense "smells" in the water, they suck water in and expel the water right back out after being "sampled" for a short or longer time, depending on how much the cichlid needs to "smell" the water. This feature is shared by saltwater damselfish and cichlids are thought to be closely related.

Since they are omnivorous the Blood Parrot will generally eat all kinds of live, fresh, and flake foods. To keep a good balance give them a high quality flake food or pellet everyday. Feed brine shrimp (either live or frozen) or blood worms as a treat. Live guppies and goldfish will suffice when they get bigger. Proteins high in B-carotene will promote good coloring.

A 30 gallon tank will be fine for juveniles for the first couple of years, but for adults 55 gallons is suggested. They prefer slow to moderate moving water along with good efficient filtration.  Because thse fish are such messy eaters, a large canister filter will work best. The aquarium should have low to moderate lighting. Provide a substrate of fine dark sand along with rocks and roots for places to hide along with open areas for swimming.  Make sure to use a fairly soft substrate as these fish enjoy digging. Plants can also be included as they will not bother them.

The Blood Parrot has been known to breed, but most often their eggs are infertile unless they are paired with a non-hybrid fish. 


 Credit :

http://bbznet.pukpik.com/images/upload3/greenbull/eBK00a6t20060207231604&Y

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/blparrot.php

Fish data : Angel fish




The Angelfish Pterophyllum scalare is a graceful disk shaped cichlid. Though it was named for the marine angelfish, it bears little resemblance to these fish or even to any other fish in the Cichlid family. This fish is rather diamond shaped or leaf-like in appearance. It has a rounded body that is greatly compressed laterally accented with long, triangular dorsal and anal fins. Its genus name Pterophyllum is very descriptive of its appearance as this term actually means "winged leaf". It is also known as the Silver Angelfish, Freshwater Angelfish, and Common Angelfish.

These are some of the most attractive fish and very popular with both the beginner and the long-time aquarists. In the wild they are found with black bars on a silver colored body. But there are also some mutations found in nature as well where these fish are without bars, are solid black, and have lace forms.

Through captive inbreeding its natural mutant forms have become fixed forms for the hobbyist. Angelfish are mostly all captive bred and there are many color and finage varieties available. Some of the best known varieties include the Silver Angelfish, Zebra Angelfish, Marbled Angelfish, Veiltail Angelfish, Blushing Angelfish, and one produced with much effort, the Gold Angelfish.

These are moderately sized cichlids that are very tall and extend to about 6 inches (15 cm) in length. The Veil varieties can be even taller due to their fins. They are moderate to care for but they do need enough room to accommodate their size and swim freely. A 30 gallon tank would be the suggested minimum, but if you are keeping a pair or keeping them in a community, the tank will need to be larger.
The Angelfish are considered a community fish, but they are cichlids. Consequently they may not be as sociable with smaller fish. They will school peacefully when they are young but tend to pair off and become more territorial when they are older. Being a bit timid, they can be frightened by shadows and fast movements. They will feel most at home and comfortable in a warmer aquarium that has hardy plants placed around the inside perimeter, has some rocks and roots for retreat, and has an open area in the center for swimming.

The Angelfish species are a most attractive and graceful group of fish. Currently there are three recognized species in thePterophyllum genera: the common Angelfish Pterophyllum scalare, the Altum Angelfish or Orinoco Angelfish Pterophyllum altum, and Leopold's Angel Pterophyllum leopoldi. Besides the three described species of Angelfish there are thought to be several undescribed species.
Questions have arisen as to what species the common Angelfish sold today actually is. There is not a definitive answer. All the angelfish species are similar in appearance. In the early days there was much confusion identify imported species and little recording of cross breedings. The three types of angelfish are:

  • Silver Angelfish Pterophyllum scalare
    The common Angelfish sold today is generally considered to be a hybrid of Pterophyllum scalare, however, this may not be the case. Forms of Angelfish found in the wild have become fixed forms by captive inbreeding. The common Angelfish has historically been referred to as Pterophyllum scalare because this angelfish proved to be the hardiest and easiest to breed in captivity.

  • Leopold's Angel Pterophyllum leopoldi
    The Leopold's Angel is a pretty rare imported. It looks very similar to the common Angelfish, but its black bar patterning is a bit different. It has a couple vertical dark body bars, but is is distinguished by a black blotch at the base of the dorsal final that doesn't extend into a full bar.

  • Altum Angelfish. Orinoco Angelfish Pterophyllum altum
    The Altum Angelfish. Orinoco Angelfish is the largest of these three species. It is distinguished by having a "notch" on the upper part of its snout followed by a steeply rising forehead, rather than a more flat or slightly rounded forehead as on the other two species In color and pattern it is very similar. The fins may have some red striations and on adults the dorsal fin may have some red spots and a blue-green cast. But overall the color differences are subtle. It used to be that only wild caught specimens of the Altum Angel could be obtained. For years this species was considered impossible to breed. More recently however, it has been successfully bred by some hobbyists and captive bred specimens are now occasionally available as well as wild caught.

The Angelfish are found in nature with black bars on a silver colored body. The laterally compressed body has a distinctive diamond shape and pointed snout. They have oversized extended dorsal and anal fins, these and the tail fin are long and flowing. In mature fish the tail fin can develop streamers on the outside corners. The pectoral fins are very long and delicate. They can have a lifespan of 10 -15 years in if properly cared for.

In the wild they are found with black bars on a silver colored body. There are also some mutations found in nature where these fish are without bars, in solid blacks, and in lace forms. Through captive inbreeding these forms have become fixed. There are many popular varieties available, including:

  • Silver Angelfish: This is the wild angelfish type. It is the standard which all other mutations and phenotypes are compared to. It has a silver body with 4 vertical black stripes (one through its eye). Most will have red eyes and can have some color on top..
  • Zebra Angelfish: This is a Silver variety with extra vertical black stripes.
  • Halfblack Silver Angelfish: This variety has a black rear portion.
  • Black Lace Angelfish or Zebra Lace Angelfish: This variety has very attractive lacing in the fins.
  • Albino Angelfish: This variety lacks pigments The eye pupils are pink as in all albino animals
  • Ghost Angelfish: This is a Silver variety with just a stripe through the eye and tail.
  • Smokey Angelfish: This variety has a dark brown/gray back half, and dark dorsal and anal fins.
  • Chocolate Angelfish: This is a Smokey variety with more of the dark pattern and sometimes only the head is silver.
  • Gold Angelfish: This variety is quite attractive, some will develop an intense orange crown.
  • Gold Marble Angelfish: This is a Gold variety with black marbling.
  • Marble Angelfish: This variety has more black pattern than Gold Marble does.
  • Silver Gold Marble Angelfish: This variety is Silver with some Gold Marble.
  • Gold Pearlscale Angelfish: This variety has a scale mutation. The scale have a wrinkled, wavy look that reflect light to create a sparkling effect.
  • Koi Angelfish: This is a Gold variety with some marbling, and a variable amount of orange.
  • Sunset Blushing Veil Angelfish: On this variety the upper half of the fish exhibits orange, sometimes the body is a pinkish or tangerine, and juveniles have clear gill plates.
  • Leopard Angelfish: The young have spots over most of their body. Most of these spots grow closer in the adult.
  • Blue Blushing Angelfish: The body of this variety is actually gray with a bluish tint under the right light spectrum. An iridescent pigment develops as they age, appears blue under most lighting.
  • Black Hybrid Angelfish: This variety is very very and may look brassy when young.
  • Lace: This variety is without complete stripes. Ghosts generally have more iridescence than non-ghosts.
  • Platinum Angelfish: This is a newer phenotype developed from the Gold Angelfish. It has a white sheen when young and becomes tinted with green or blue as it matures.
  • German Red Angelfish: This is a popular newer phenotype variety that has a is reddish hue all along the body. Be cautious though, sometime what is sold as this fish may be a Ghost Angelfish that's been fed a red food coloring. etc.
Since they are omnivorous, the Angelfish will generally eat all kinds of live, fresh, and flake foods. They do best on a diet which contains plenty of protein, but variety is important. To keep a good balance give them a high quality flake food or pellet everyday. Feed brine shrimp (either live or frozen) or blood worms as a treat. You can even feed them lettuce or spinach. Feed mosquito larvae very sparingly as they will tend to over eat it. Overeating can result in a buildup of fats, which results in inactivity and could kill them.

Angelfish require weekly water changes of roughly 15-20% of the aquarium's capacity. The Angel is very sensitive to water fluctuation so make sure to test any water going back into the tank. The water needs to be soft for 0-5dH. Make sure when doing water changes to carefully vacuum the substrate throughly. Take care to not cause unwarranted or excessive stress to the tank's inhabitants while cleaning the tank. 

A minimum 30 gallon aquarium is suggested, though a larger tank would be best if keeping several. They need good water movement along with very strong and efficient filtration. They do best in a warm aquarium with soft, slightly acidic to neutral water. Provide hardy plants placed around the inside perimeter along with some rocks and roots, but keep an open area in the center for swimming. They prefer subdued lighting. These fish do not burrow and will not damage plants as much as other cichlids.

They are considered a community fish but being in the cichlid family, may become aggressive towards smaller fish. They are usually fine when young but they will often get territorial as they get older. They will pair off, developing a strong nuclear family, and defend a territory in which to breed. A nice thing about Angelfish is that they don't burrow or disturb plants!  Take caution to pick tankmates that are not known to be fin nippers.

Angelfish are egg layers and form nuclear families. These egg layers are open breeders that spawn on the submerged leaves in the wild, They are difficult to sex, so it's best to start with a small school of about 4 - 8 fish and let them establish pairs. They become sexually mature around 6 to 12 months or more, depending on the tank conditions, and about 2 inches (5 cm) or more in length.

The pair will need very clean water and need to be conditioned to spawn. Supplement their current diet with foods rich in protein, but be sure to not overfeed them. The breeding water should be slightly acidic, soft, and warm. Have a pH of about 6.5. hardness at about 5° dGH, and temperatures between 80 - 85° F (27 - 29 ° C). The males sometimes make a loud grating sound with their jaws when mating.
The female lays up to about 1000 eggs on carefully cleaned leaves and the male will follow and fertilize them. Eggs will be laid, but convincing the parents to care for the eggs is another issue. Generations of inbreeding have cost these fish much or their parenting instincts, resulting in a tendency to eat the eggs. If the parents don't eat the eggs, the larvae and fry are carefully guarded. The eggs will hatch in a few days and the fry will be free swimming in a week. The parents will swimming with a shoal of fry in tow. The fry can be fed newly hatched brine shrimp for the first week or two. 


 Credit : 

http://www.chiangmaizoo.com/web25/images/webimages/Research/animal-aquatic/Angel%20fish/3.jpg

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/angelfish.php


Fish data : Altum Angelfish



The Altum Angelfish Pterophyllum altum is the largest of the three described angelfish species. They measure about 7 inches (18 cm) in length but are very tall, with  extensive fins reaching up to around 9" (20 cm) in height. Although larger than its close and well known relative, the common Silver Angelfish Pterophyllum scalare, this disk shaped cichlid is very elegant and graceful. It is also known as the Orinoco Angelfish, Atlum Angel, and Deep Angelfish.

P. altum is distinguished from the other angelfish species by having a "notch" on the upper part of its snout rather than a more flat or slightly rounded forehead as on the other two species. In color and pattern it is very similar with a silver colored body and dark bars that are brownish/red. The fins can show red striations and adults may have some red spots and a blue-green cast to the dorsal fin. When aroused they will exhibit a black spot on the gill cover. Overall color differences can often be subtle, but all true P. altum will have the notch above the nares.

In the past it was only possible to obtain wild caught specimens of this fish. This was due to a high mortality rate which for years  made the fish practically impossible to breed. More recently however, it has been successfully bred by some hobbyists and captive bred specimens are now occasionally available as well as wild caught. There are also hybrids being developed by cross breeding the P. altum with P. scalare and called the "Orinoco Altum". These hybrids may or may not show the notched trait of the true species, or may have it to a lesser degree.

The Altum is considered the most peaceful of all angelfish species. It is a bit timid however, and can be frightened by shadows and fast movements. This is especially true when first acquired, but once acclimated it is a friendly and personable fish. This angelfish is considered a community fish, but as a cichlid may not be as sociable with smaller fish. They will school peacefully when they are young, but tend to pair off and become more territorial when they are older.

They are moderately difficult to keep as they have more stringent requirements than the common angelfish. They need enough room to accommodate their size and swim freely. A 55 gallon tank would be the suggested minimum, but if you are keeping a pair or keeping them in a community, the tank will need to be larger. They will feel most at home and comfortable in a warmer aquarium that has roots and some rocks to offer places of refuge. They also like hardy plants placed around the inside perimeter, keeping an open area in the center for swimming.

The Altum Angelfish Pterophyllum altum was described by Pellegrin in 1903. They are found in rivers in South America; the Amazon River basin in the upper Negro River drainage and the Orinoco River basin in tributaries of the upper Orinoco River (Inírida and Atabapo rivers) to Puerto Ayacucho. Other common names they are known by are Orinoco Angelfish, Altum Angel, and Deep Angelfish.

In the wild these cichlids live in river watersheds and flood plains where there are moderate amounts of water flow, submerged tree and plant roots, and underwater vegetation. They are more frequently found in very soft and well oxygenated waters. As omnivores they feed on smaller fish and invertebrates as well as eating food particles in the water.
The Angelfish species are an attractive and graceful group of fish. Besides the Altum Angelfish, there are two other recognized species in the Pterophyllum genera. There are also thought to be several undescribed species. The other two described species are:

  • Silver Angelfish Pterophyllum scalare
    The common Angelfish sold today is generally considered to be a hybrid of Pterophyllum scalare, however, this may not be the case. Forms of Angelfish found in the wild have become fixed forms by captive inbreeding. The common Angelfish has historically been referred to as Pterophyllum scalare because this angelfish proved to be the hardiest and easiest to breed in captivity.

  • Leopold's Angel Pterophyllum leopoldi
    The Leopold's Angel must be imported to America and is fairly rare. Visually it appears very similar to the common Angelfish, but displays slightly different black bar patterning. It has a few vertical dark body bars, but is distinguished by a black blotch at the base of the dorsal final that doesn't extend into a full bar.

The Altum Angelfish is very similar to the wild form of the other angelfish species. But It is larger both in length and in height. It generally reaches about 7 inches (18 cm) in length and is about 9 inches (20 cm) in height from the tip of the dorsal fin to the tip of the anal fin. There are some reported anomalies of wild specimens reaching up to 19.6 inches (50 cm) in height and some aquarium specimens said to reach over 15.75 inches (40 cm) in height.

The body is laterally compressed with a distinctive diamond shape and steep forehead with a a "notch" on the upper part of its snout, just above the nares, and a steeply rising forehead. They have oversized extended dorsal and anal fins which, along with the tail fin, tend to be very long and flowing. In mature fish the tail fin can develop streamers on the outside corners. The Pelvic (ventral) fins are also very long and delicate. They can have a lifespan of 10 -15 years when properly cared for in a well maintained aquarium.

The body presents a general silver coloration which may be accented with a greenish tint. Three broad dark brownish/redish bars run vertically along the body in addition to some less prounounced and fainter bars. The fins can show red striations and adults may have some red spots and a blue-green cast to the dorsal fin. When aroused they will exhibit a black spot on the gill cover.
There are also hybrids being developed by cross breeding the P. altum with P. scalare and called the "Orinoco Altum". These hybrids may or may not show the notched trait of the true species, or may have it to a lesser degree.

Since they are omnivorous, the Altum Angelfish will generally eat all kinds of live, fresh, and flake foods. To keep a good balance give them a high quality flake food or pellet everyday. Feed brine shrimp (either live or frozen) or blood worms as a treat. You can even feed them lettuce or spinach. Feed mosquito larvae very sparingly as they will tend to over eat it. Overeating can result in a buildup of fats, which results in inactivity and could kill them.

A minimum 55 gallon aquarium is okay for a single fish, though a larger tank would be suggested if keeping more or keeping them in a community. They need good water movement along with very strong and efficient filtration. As they come from a natural environment with soft, well oxygenated water it is recommended to provide peat-filtered water.

Provide a warmer aquarium that has roots and some rocks to offer places of refuge. They also like hardy plants placed around the inside perimeter, keeping an open area in the center for swimming. They prefer subdued lighting. These fish do not burrow and will not damage plants as much as other cichlids.

The Altum Angelfish is more sensitive to its water conditions than the common angelfish, so is suggested for an aquarist with some fish keeping experience. It can be rewarding to keep for aquarists who are observant and diligent in providing care.

Though they are considered a community fish, Altum Angelfish may become territorial as they grow older. They are reportedly a more peaceful fish than other angelfish species, but being in the cichlid family smaller fish may not do well with them. As they mature they will pair off, developing a strong nuclear family, and defend a territory in which to breed. A nice thing about the Altum Angelfish is that they don't burrow or disturb plants!

The Altum Angelfish is a difficult fish to breed. For years it was considered impossible to breed. More recently it has been successfully bred by some hobbyists and captive bred specimens are now occasionally available. There are also hybrids being developed by cross breeding the P. altum with P. scalare called the "Orinoco Altum". The characteristic "notched" nose of the pure blooded fish may or may not present in the hybrid version, or it may simply appear less pronounced.

These fish are egg layers and form nuclear families. These egg layers are open breeders that prefer to spawn on submerged roots and tree branches in the wild. They are difficult to sex, so it's best to start with a small school of about 4 - 8 fish and let them establish pairs.

The pair will need very clean water and need to be conditioned to spawn. Supplement their current diet with foods rich in protein, but still be sure to not overfeed them. The breeding water should be soft, acidic, and warm. Have a pH between 5.8 - 6.2. hardness at 1 - 5° dGH, and temperatures between 86 - 87.8° F (30 - 31 ° C). The males sometimes make a loud grating sound with their jaws when mating.
The female will lay between a few hundred to over 1000 eggs on carefully cleaned leaves and the male will follow and fertilize them. If the parents don't eat the eggs, the larvae and fry are carefully guarded. The eggs will hatch in a few days and the fry will be free swimming in a week. The parents will swimming with a shoal of fry in tow. The fry can be fed newly hatched brine shrimp for the first week or two. 


 Credit :

http://www.ninekaow.com/data/wbs/pictures/05/0003036/pic-1207127506.jpg

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/AltumAngelfish.php

วันเสาร์ที่ 24 มกราคม พ.ศ. 2558

Fish data : Ram Cichlid




The Ram Cichlid Mikrogeophagus ramirezi (previously Paplilochromis ramirezi) is a beautiful, small, and peaceful cichlid. Though they were discovered over 30 years later than their cousin the Bolivian RamMikrogeophagus altispinosus, they have been imported more regularly and are currently better known. Though both the Bolivian Ram and the Ram Cichlid are dwarfs, the Ram actually only reaches about 2/3 the length of the Bolivian Ram.  It will reach about 2 inches (5 cm) in length in the aquarium, though natural specimens can attain a length of about 2 3/4" (7 cm).

This delicate oval shape cichlid is adorned with long pointed fins and a bright, snappy color patterning. Its body coloring is yellow towards the front and blends into a whitish-blue moving back. It has a orangish red on the forehead and edging the yellowish fins, with females having a pinkish orange belly. It is accented with a curved black line running vertically down the head, right through the eye, and can have black blotching on the front of the dorsal fin. The "Golden Ram", a naturally occurring color morph, displays more yellow on its head, more white on the body, and orangish red coloring on the forehead and tips of the fins.

Note that these fish have spawned a large progeny of color forms and varieties bred between both wild caught specimens and captive bred fish. Some of the other common names and forms of this fish are the Butterfly Cichlid, Dwarf Cichlid, Ram, Ramirezi, Blue Ram, and Singapore Ram. Selective breeding has created a variety of color forms known as the Balloon Ram, German Blue Ram, German Ram, Electric Blue Ram Cichlid, Gold German Ram, Golden Ram, and Blue German Ram.
Unfortunately, excessive interbreeding of captive fish has often resulted in smaller fish with weaker color displays, along with malformed and damaged fry. Constantly reintroducing wild caught fish into the breeding pool can help keep the lines healthier. Also some females being bred in Asia are loaded up with hormones to make their color vivid. The results of this have been infertility and death within a few months. These fish are generally sold under the "German Blue Ram" label. To avoid these specimens, purchase from a reputable dealer, a local breeder, or obtain wild caught fish.

These dwarf cichlids are a little less aggressive then their Bolivian counterpart, but are a bit more difficult to keep and breed. Even so they give an aquarist the same joys as other dwarf cichlids. They are also inexpensive and much easier to acquire. Provide an environment with rocks, driftwood, and flowerpots for hiding to make them feel comfortable. They will also enjoy several dense plant clusters, but leave some open space for swimming. The only real challenge these fish present in terms of maintenance is consistently and diligently performing water changes. If water quality is ignored, as with all cichlids, disease and death can occur. Just a little dedication will reap pleasurable results from this little fish.

The Ram Cichlid is a very peaceful fish and is one of a select few cichlids that can be kept in a true community tank, including a tank with non-cichlids. This fish is 'more bark than bite' and will not do well in an aggressive tank. They make a good inhabitant for a community tank with fish of a similar temperament. They are personable with their owner too, and will quickly associate them with food, happily begging for more whenever you approach the tank.

The Ram Cichlid is a small colorful fish with an oval shaped body and pointed fins and tail. Mature males develop more pointed dorsal fins than females and also grow larger at about 2 inches (5 cm) in length in the aquarium, though they can attain a length of about 2 3/4" (7 cm) in nature. This fish can live up to about 4 years.

The body has a yellow area on the first third of the body starting at the nose, with the last two thirds being whitish blue to blue. There is a curved black line that runs vertically from the forehead, through the eye, and then down to the chin. There is a black spot in the middle of the body. The fins are a clearish yellow and can have a black blotch on the first few rays of the dorsal fin. The female has similar coloring, but also has a pinkish orange belly.

The naturally occuring color morph known as the "Golden Ram" has a yellow head and more white on the body. It also has orangish red coloring on the forehead and tips of the fins.

All cichlids, along with some saltwater fish such as wrasses and parrotfish, share a common feature of a well-developed pharyngeal set of teeth located in the throat, along with their regular teeth. Cichlids have spiny rays in the back parts of the anal, dorsal, pectoral, and pelvic fins to help discourage predators. The front part of these fins are soft and perfect for precise positions and effortless movements in the water as opposed to fast swimming.

Cichlids have one nostril on each side while other fish have 2 sets. To sense "smells" in the water, they suck water in and expel the water right back out after being "sampled" for a short or longer time, depending on how much the cichlid needs to "smell" the water. This feature is shared by saltwater damselfish and cichlids are thought to be closely related.

The Ram Cichlid is an omnivore whose diet in the wild consists of plant material and small organisms. In the aquarium it can be fed a mix of meaty foods that are live or frozen; such as brine shrimp, blood worms, white worms, chopped earthworms, cyclopeeze, and artemia.
Some may eat flakes and pellets, but these should not be the staple of their diet. Feed 2 to 5 small pinches of food a day in smaller amounts instead of a large quantity once a day. This will keep the water quality higher over a longer time. All fish benefit from vitamins and supplements added to their foods.

It is recommended to keep these fish in a minimum of a 10 gallon tank. They prefer slow to moderate moving water along with good efficient filtration. R/O water (reverse osmosis) is preferable. A mature tank with a pH of acidic to neutral water is best. Keep track of nitrates. Also, oxygen levels must be maintained for best color and health. The aquarium should have a cover and low to moderate lighting.
Provide a substrate of fine sand with some granite pebbles and an environment with rocks, driftwood, and flowerpots for hiding is appreciated. They also enjoy several dense plant clusters but be sure to leave some open space for swimming. Some good aquatic plants include Java FernRosette plants like the Amazon SwordVallisneriastem plants like Wisteria, and other acidic tolerating plants work great.
The Ram Cichlid does not like to breed in bright lighting. Some floating plants will help to diffuse lighting if you are encouraging them to spawn, as will R/O water (reverse osmosis). Provide granite pebbles or plants with wide leaves. Java Moss is also great as it contains micro organisms such as Infusoria which provide a good beginning food for the fry.

When using substrate or rocks, be sure they do not leech into the water and affect the pH. Substrates such as limestone can increase the pH level. You would not use sand that is for marine tanks, but some have suggested pool filter sand. Driftwood is a big help in keeping pH low and contributes to the "tea stained" coloring of the Amazon River. Using Java Moss helps with keeping the pH down too.


Credit :

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/RamCichlid.php

http://aquaresearchcenter.com/images/rams/MaleRam_4web.jpg

Fish data : Rainbow Cichlid



The Rainbow Cichlid Archocentrus multispinosus (previouslyHerotilapia multispinosa) is said to be the smallest of the Central American Cichlids. While it can reach just over 6 1/2 inches (17 cm) in the wild, they are significantly smaller in the aquarium and generally only reach a length of about 3 inches (7 cm).

They are personable fish and have been a long time inhabitant in the aquarium hobby. Some of their most notable and desired characteristics are their eponymous 'rainbow' coloring, their peaceful nature, and their compact and manageable size. Interestingly, their color is subject to a wide breadth of variability and will change significantly depending on its mood or if it is spawning. They normally present a brilliantly colored body in gold to orange with a broken black horizontal bar running the length of their body. They also display bright accents with orange on the eyes and on most of the fins, along with some beautiful blue hues on their lower body and fins and on the fin tips.
The colorful Rainbow Cichlid is a great addition to a community aquarium, and, due to its relatively small size, can be kept in a fairly small tank, unlike many other cichlids. Being peaceful it can be kept with regular tropical fish, much like Discus and German Rams. It can also make a very attractive show specimen in a species tank. 

These are hardy fish and very easy to care for, and they are also not difficult to breed. They do require very clean water, however, so it is recommended to change their water regularly. A fine gravel substrate with rocks and pieces of driftwood for hiding places will make this dwarf cichlid feel right at home. They will also enjoy a heavily planted aquarium and will not generally disturb the plants. If you are going to have plants though, it's best to make sure they are hardy and and well rooted.
The Rainbow Cichlids, unlike other Central American cichlids, have tricuspid teeth. These teeth allow them to feed on the filamentous algae which makes up a good part of their diet in the wild. This does not pose any real dietary restrictions in the aquarium though, because they are not overly picky eaters. Their teeth had gained them their own monotypic genus under the name of Herotilapia with this fish being the only species in this genus. But more recently it was moved into the Archocentrus as one of three species.

The Rainbow Cichlid is a small colorful fish with a stocky oval body and pointed dorsal and anal fins. It is thought to be the smallest of the Central American Cichlids. In the wild they can attain lengths between about 2 1/2 - 6 1/2 inches ((7 - 17 cm), and the males tend to be a bit longer than the females. In the aquarium however, it matures at 3 inches (7 cm) and rarely grows much larger than that. They have a lifespan of 7 - 9 years with proper care.

The body is a golden to orange color and has an irregular black horizontal bar that runs from behind eye on the gill cover back to the tail fin. The eyes are orange and they have orange in most of the fins. The exceptions are the pelvic fins which are bright blue and the anal fins which are a mix of the two colors, with more blue towards the front and the last 1/3 being all orange. Their dorsal fin is orange with this same blue at the tips.

Unlike other Central American Cichlids, these fish have specialized teeth called tricuspid teeth. These are three pointed teeth that allow them to feed on the filamentous algae that makes up a large amount of natural their diet.

All cichlids share a common feature that some saltwater fish such as wrasses and parrotfish have. That is a well-developed pharyngeal set of teeth located in the throat, along with their regular teeth. Cichlids have spiny rays in the back parts of the anal, dorsal, pectoral, and pelvic fins to help discourage predators. The front part of these fins are soft and perfect for precise positions and effortless movements in the water as opposed to fast swimming.

Cichlids have one nostril on each side while other fish have 2 sets. To sense "smells" in the water, they suck water in and expel the water right back out after being "sampled" for a short or longer time, depending on how much the cichlid needs to "smell" the water. This feature is shared by saltwater damselfish and cichlids are thought to be closely related.

The Rainbow Cichlid is an omnivore and is a ready and eager eater. They will eat prepared foods including tubifex, freeze-dried bloodworms, ocean plankton, and floating food sticks. Feed a vegetable based flake as well. Feed twice a day in smaller amounts as this will keep the water quality higher over a longer time. Some suggest that a one day a week fast is also beneficial. All fish benefit from vitamins and supplements added to their foods.

A pair can be put in a 20 gallon tank, with 50 gallons suggested if kept with other fish. They prefer slow to moderate moving water along with good efficient filtration. Provide a fine gravel substrate with rocks, roots, and pieces of driftwood for hiding places. They will also enjoy a heavily planted aquarium and will not generally disturb the plants. If you are going to have plants it's best to make sure they are hardy and and well rooted. Do water changes of 20% weekly, depending on stocking numbers.


Credit :

http://www.aquariumdomain.com/images/fish_freshwater/rainbowCichlid3.jpg

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/RainbowCichlid.php