วันอังคารที่ 17 กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2558

Galaxy Rasbora in aquarium tank




Fish data : Electric Blue Jack Dempsey Cichlid



The Electric Blue Jack Dempsey cichlid Rocio octofasciata cf. (previously Cichlasoma octofasciatum) is considered to be one of the most beautiful freshwater aquarium fish. The adult displays a magnificent blue coloration, and is definitely one of the 'bluest' freshwater fish in the hobby. It has a dark brown background that is covered with brilliant metallic and iridescent blue flecks. It will reach a maximum length of a little more than 8" (20 cm), or slightly smaller than its genetic progenitor,the Jack Dempsey.These fish are also called the Blue Dempsey, Electric Blue Dempsey, and Jack Dempsey Neon Blue.

This dazzling fish is a naturally occurring variant of the Jack Dempsey. According to popular rumor, fry which displayed the bright blue coloring of the Electric Blue Jack Dempsey were considered to be malformed and runtish and were discarded by their keepers as inferior specimens. Fortunately for those hobbyists who appreciate the stunning coloration of these fish, and for the hobby in general, this archaic and incorrect view has been largely discarded and these fish are now being actively bred and developed in captivity. Though the Blue Dempsey is relatively easy to breed, it does take a considerable amount of time, luck, and a well designed aquarium set up, so these fish are rather rare and quite a bit more expensive than many other tropical fish, include the Electric Blue Jack Dempsey's progentitor species, the Jack Dempsey.

The Blue Dempsey is a bit more delicate than its parentage. But just like its progenitors, it likes a tank bottom of fine sand to burrow in and create nests out of. It also needs plenty of hiding places among rocks and wood, and a cover of floating plants. However they will enjoy snacking on any plants in the aquarium, so it is reccommended to monitor the status of any plants sharing the tank with a Blue Dempsey.

This cichlid, true to its family, tends to be semi-aggressive and will appreciate being kept in a large aquarium with similarily sized and tempered tankmates. That being said, it generally is not quite as aggressive as many cichlids and can be shy at times. Thus, it is best to either keep it singly or in a large group with only a few other tankmates.

The Jack Dempsey Rocio octofasciata (previously Cichlasoma octofasciatum) was described by Regan in 1903. This species is not listed on the IUCN Red List. They are found in North and Central America; Southern Mexico, Guatemala, Yucatan, and Honduras. Feral populations have been found in the USA, Australia, and Thailand as well. They inhabit bogs and other warm, slow moving, and swampy waters, living among weedy areas with sandy or muddy bottoms. They feed on worms, crustaceans, insects and fish.

The Electric Blue Jack Dempsey is a naturally occurring color-morph of the Jack Dempsey which has often been bred in captivity. It is said that for a long time hatched fry with this bluish coloration were consider runts and were discarded. This is no longer the case and in fact the fry which display the Electric Blue coloring usually sell for higher prices when mature. They are relatively easy to breed but take a lot of time and the right set-up, so they are more rare and costly than their parentage. Other common names are Blue Dempsey, Electric Blue Dempsey, and Jack Dempsey Neon Blue.

Just like its parentage, the body of the Electric Blue Jack Dempsey is stocky and compact. However this variety is a little smaller reaching closer to the 8 inches (20 cm) in length, rather than the almost 10 inches (25 cm) of a full size Jack Dempsey fish. They generally have a life span of 10 - 15 years.
This beautiful variant exhibits a coloration comprised of mostly 'blues' rather than the 'greens' seen on the normal Dempsey cichlid. They have a dark brown background contrasted with brilliant metallic and iridescent blue flecks. Males develop long pointed dorsal and anal fins and may also have a round black spot in the center of the body and at the base of the tail. Juveniles are less brilliant, having a white to light tan background with faint turquoise to blue flecks that get bolder with age.

If stressed or moody these fish can exhibit great color change in the aquarium, and also with age. Stressed fish will be lighter and their spots will be less striking.

A minimum 40 gallon aquarium is suggested, though a larger tank would be suggested if keeping them in a semi-aggressive community tank with other like sized fish. They need good water movement along with strong and efficient filtration.

Although Dempsey's can tolerate a fairly wide range of conditions, it has been suggested that warmer temperatures lead to more aggression in this fish. Many aquarists will keep the maximum aquarium temperature below 78° F (26° C) to help reduce antagonism.

Provide a bottom of fine sand and plenty of hiding places among rocks and wood. Plants are appreciated but should be hardy, such as Sagittaria. Place the plants around the inside perimeter leaving an open area in the center for swimming. The plants should be potted to protect the roots.
The Electric Blue Jack Dempsey is a rewarding specimen for the aquarist as it is moderately easy to keep as long as the aquarium is maintained.

Though the aggressively territorial Jack Dempsey is not considered a good community fish due to their proclivity to defend their territory, the Electric Blue Jack Dempsey has demonstrated a much more tolerant attitude towards tankmates. That being said, as this fish ages it can tend to become more territorial and aggressive, especially when it is time for them to spawn. If they become too aggressive to cohabitat with the other members of the tank, it is recommended they be transfered to a species only tank. If keeping more than one, it is easier and safer for them to keep them in large groups rather than in pairs.

The author has successfully kept an adult Electric Blue Jack Dempsey with a 12" Peacock Eel, a 10" Chocolate Plecostomus, and a 4" Upside-down Catfish for several years. They get along very well.

The Electric Blue Jack Dempsey Cichlid has been bred in captivity. They are one of the easiest cichlids to get to spawn but as pairs they can become territorial, intolerant, and biters.
The Dempsey fish are egg layers. The female will lay 500-800 eggs on carefully cleaned rocks. They form a nuclear family. The fry are kept in pits and are guarded by both the male and female in the manner of "monogamous cichlid" breeders.

They are subject to infections as well as other diseases that ail all freshwater fish. One common problem is Ich. It can be treated with the elevation of the tank temperature to 86° F (30° C) for a few days since they can tolerate higher temperatures. They are prone to the same diseases as discus. Head and Lateral Line Erosion (HLLE), which was previously called "hole-in-the-head" disease. is common with poor water conditions. HLLE presents as cavities or pits on the head and face. It is believed this may be caused by a nutritional deficiency of one or more of: Vitamin C, Vitamin D, calcium, or phosphorus. In addition, it is thought to be caused by a poor diet or lack of variety, lack of partial water changes, or over filtration with chemical media such as activated carbon.

As with most fish the Blue Dempsey Cichlids are prone to skin flukes and other parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.), fungal infections, and bacterial infections. It is recommended to read up on the common tank diseases. Knowing the signs and catching and treating them early makes a huge difference. For information about freshwater fish diseases and illnesses


  Credit :

http://www.cichlids.com/uploads/tx_usercichlids/user_pics/1368/1368____file_01_dads_pics_1_491.jpg


http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/ElectricBlueJackDempsey.php

Fish Data : Convict Cichlid




The Convict Cichlid Amatitlania nigrofasciata (previously Archocentrus nigrofasciatus and Cichlosoma nigrofasciatum), a.k.a. the Zebra Cichlid, is a hardy fish with a pugnacious attitude. Their name, Convict Cichlid, originates from the broad, dark vertical lines running down their body, making them similar in apperance to the traditional "jailbird" outfit. When mature, they reach a maximum size of about 5-6" (13-15 cm) which makes them one of the smaller Central American cichlids. The male Convict will be larger than the female, but the females will be more colorful. There are also several color varieties being bred. The popular pseudo-albino forms are known as the Pink Convict Cichlid or White Convict Cichlid.

Convict Cichlids have a tendency towards unusually aggressive and spunky behaviors for a fish their size. For example, they are known for their tendency to attack almost any other fish in their territory, including fish up to three times their size! They are great in a tank with other aggressive fish, just make sure the other fish are not so big that they can swallow your Convict Cichlid whole.
These are an undemanding fish and very easy to care for. A sandy substrate with rocks, roots, and pieces of driftwood will make your Convict Cichlid feel at home. They enjoy plants, especially floating plants to help subdue the light. They will re-arrange your tank however, so be sure to anchor planted plants to the bottom of the tank as the Convict Cichlid sometimes likes to remove the gravel and substrate keeping the plant anchored to the bottom. Convict Cichlids prefer a warm tank and can tolerant a wide range of pH, pretty much anywhere from 6.0 to 8.0, though it needs to be kept reasonably consistent.

One of their most notable characteristics is that they are one of the easiest fish to breed and generally don't even require aid from the aquarist. Due to the extreme ease of breeding, these fish have been called the 'rabbits of the fish world'. They have the reputation of "spawning in the bag on the way home from the fish store". This statement is a bit of a stretch, but not far from reality. 
Although they are small, beautiful, and easy to keep and breed, the Convict Cichlid is also very aggressive. Fishkeepers, especially begginners, should therefore be well informed when choosing this fish as a pet and be mindful of their tendencies and particulars when deciding on tankmates and aquarium setup. 

The Convict Cichlid Amatitlania nigrofasciata (previouslyArchocentrus nigrofasciatus and Cichlosoma nigrofasciatum) was described by G{uuml}nther in 1867. They are found in Central America on the Pacific slope from Costa Rica to Guatemala and on the Atlantic slope from Honduras to Panama. These fish have been introduced to many areas in the United States by fish owners and local American populations are growing. Another common name for this fish is the Zebra Cichlid. The pseudo-albino variety is known as the Pink Convict Cichlid or White Convict Cichlid. This species is known to cross breed with theNicaragua Cichlid Hypsophrys nicaraguensis and the crosses are fertile to at least the 4th generation. The species is not listed on the IUCN Red List.

Until the mid 1980's there were some 100+ species that were described under the genus Cichlasoma. But around this time it was determined that they no longer fit in that genus and were moved into their own various genera. Many were left orphaned and are now temporarily designated as "Cichlasoma" (with quotation marks) until the scientific community decides what genus to place them in. This allows only true Cichlasoma to remain in this 'corrected' genus, currently comprised of 12 species.

The rivers they inhabit are the Tarcoles, Aguan River, and Guarumo River. They like waters that are flowing from smaller streams to larger fast flowing rivers. They dwell among the shallow rocky areas where they hide in cracks and crevices, feeding on worms, insects, fish, crustaceans and plants. They can also be found in warm pools of springs. These fish are almost never found in open waters and prefer areas with some sort of coverage.

The Convict Cichlid has a stocky oval disk shape, with pointed anal and dorsal fins. This is one of the smaller Central American cichlids, with the males only reaching 5 - 6" (13 -15 cm) in length and females a bit less at 3 - 4" (8 -10 cm). They are also very deep bodied so it's easy to underestimate their actual size. They have a general life span of 8 - 10 years, though there have been reports of individuals living up to 20 years.

This cichlid has a blue-gray, cream, or blue-lavendar base on the body with 8 to 9 dark vertically running bands. They have a break in the vertical bands in the area behind their head, almost forming a "U" shape. The fins are clearish to light yellow.

With in-line breeding there are now several color varieties. The Pink Convict Cichlid or White Convict Cichlid are pseudo-albino varieties that are pink and cream, and lack the characteristic vertical bars. The coloring of the male is monotone while the female will have an orangish patch on the stomach.
All cichlids, along with some saltwater fish such as wrasses and parrotfish, share a common trait of a well-developed pharyngeal set of teeth located in the throat, along with their regular teeth. Cichlids have spiny rays in the back parts of the anal, dorsal, pectoral, and pelvic fins to help discourage predators. The front part of these fins are soft and perfect for precise positions and effortless movements in the water as opposed to fast swimming.

Cichlids have one nostril on each side while other fish have 2 sets. To sense "smells" in the water, they suck water in and expel the water right back out after being "sampled" for a short or longer time, depending on how much the cichlid needs to "smell" the water. This feature is shared by saltwater damselfish and cichlids are thought to be closely related.

The Convict Cichlids are fairly easy to care for provided their water is kept clean. Aquariums are closed systems and regardless of size all need some maintenance. With home aquariums the nitrate and phosphates build up over time and the water hardness increases due to evaporation. Because these fish are very sensitive to pollutants and pH instabilty, so it is important that at least 15- 20% of the tank water is replaced bi-weekly, especially if the tank is densely stocked. When doing the water changes always use a gravel cleaner to ensure all of the decomposing organic matter that has built up is removed. The majority of of problems that occur with tropical fish tanks usually come down to one cause: decomposing organic matter!

Convict Cichlids do best when they are allowed plenty of space and a large aquarium. A pair of juveniles can do well in a tank as small as 20 gallons. However, it is recommended that once they become fully grown that they be moved to a tank of around 50 gallons or more. They prefer to have good water movement and efficient filtration. They like a warm tank and can tolerant a wide range of pH, pretty much anywhere from 6.0 to 8.0, though it needs to be kept reasonably consistent.
This cichlid has some salt tolerance and can be kept in slightly brackish water conditions. However it is not suited to a full brackish water tank. It can tolerate a salinity that is about 10% of normal a saltwater tank, a specific gravity of less than 1.0002.

Provide a sandy substrate with rocks, roots, and pieces of driftwood. They also enjoy plants, especially floating plants to help subdue the light. They will re-arrange the aquarium so make sure substrate plants are anchored down. Normal aquarium lighting works fine if there are floating plants, and low to moderate lighting if no plants.

Convict Cichlids are cave spawners. They will readily breed in captivity and are one of the best cichlid parents around. One author's very descriptive remark is that to breed them you "just add fish and water". A group of juveniles will result in a pair being formed, leaving the remaining fish cowering in the corner if the tank is small.

The pair will shake their heads at each other in a little pre-spawning dance. The male will position himself vertically and change to darker, more vivid shades of color. The female will do the same dance and flare up. They will then clean an area and dig a depression in the substrate around a rock, flower pot, or cave. The female will lay about 20-40 eggs on the inside top of the cave or flowerpot and the male will follow her up and fertilize them. This will continue until there are 100-300 eggs, depending on the maturity of the female. She will fan the eggs while the male keeps an eye on the nest and patrols the outside.

Depending on temperature and pH, the young hatch in about 48 to 72 hours. Within another 6-8 days they are free swimming and can be fed powdered (crushed) flake, daphnia, baby brine shrimp, and/or pellet food for omnivorous cichlids. They can be advanced to full flake at about 3 weeks old. The female helps out by stirring up the sand with her belly to expose food that has settled at the bottom, or by chewing up food that is too large and spitting it into the water for the young to eat. The parents also secrete a mucus like substance on their bodies that is a sort of supplementary food for the fry. 
The parents defend their babies at all cost and will push tank mates to the other side of the tank. If they feel their young are threatened, they may actually bury them in the sand. They will retrieve any fry that stray from the nest and the male will viciously guard them to the death.

You can remove the fry after a few weeks if you plan to raise them, allowing the breeding process to start again. If you do not remove them the female sometimes will eat the young. This will result in the male attacking the female to the point where you may have to remove her or put in a divider. The young are ready to breed within a year.


 Credit :

http://www.mycichlidaquarium.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/301324201_6f66af03cb.jpg

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/ConvictCichlid.php




Fish Data : Blue Acara Cichlid



The Blue Acara Aequidens pulcherhas been a cichlid of choice for many years for the South American cichlid aquarium. Its species term pulcher means "beautiful", and true to its name it is a beautiful medium sized fish cichlid. Its color is mostly a steel blue-gray, but it is distinguished from other Acara species by a broader forehead. It can reach up to about 8 inches (20 cm) in length, but it will start to breed at a much smaller size of only 4 inches.

This is a hardy species that makes an excellent choice for the beginning cichlid keeper. They are moderately easy to care for as long as the water quality is maintained and they are provided a quality diet. They are a ready feeder and if bred they become excellent parents. They spawn easily and take very good care of their fry.

This cichlid is a bit more courteous than the others of its genus. A peaceful community cichlid, it can be kept with other similar sized South American cichlids, catfish, or plecostomus. Though it is a fairly peaceful member of the Cichlid family, it is apt to bully smaller fish. It should be kept with the same size or larger fish.

The Blue Acara is generally peaceful even with its own kind. If more than one is kept, they will form pairs. They will also usually not bother any fish that stays away from its territory, except when it is breeding it may tend to become more aggressive. They will breed every two weeks on a regular basis if the fry are removed shortly after hatching. However they are excellent parents and will not harm the fry even if left in the aquarium.

They are most comfortable with a tank bottom of fine sand and plenty of hiding places among rocks and wood. Plants are appreciated, but Blue Acara love to dig and can uproot them. Hardy plants such as Sagittaria andVallisneria are best, and should be potted to protect the roots. They need frequent water changes as their excretions will cloud the water and promote disease.
The Blue Acara tends to be confused with its very similar looking relative, the Green Terror Aequidens rivulatus. For some time the Green Terror was actually known as the A. pulcher, but it is now recognized as an independent species. The Blue Acara is slightly smaller and not as aggressive as the Green Terror, nor does it develop as large a hump on its head when mature.

The Blue Acara is an oval shaped fish that is stocky and compact with pointed anal and dorsal fins. They are a moderately sized cichlid reaching about 8 inches (20 cm) in length with a life span of about 7 - 10 years. They become sexually mature at about 2 1/2 inches (6.35 cm) and will begin to breed at 4 inches (10 cm).

This colorful fish is mostly a steel blue-gray coloration with various spots and striping on its body and head. There are a few green horizontal lines on the face and their overall bluish-green scales give them a sparkling appearance. The sexes are very similar in appearance, but the male's fins are longer and the rays of the dorsal and anal fins will often arch around the tail fin.

All cichlids, along with some saltwater fish such as wrasses and parrotfish, share a common trait of a well-developed pharyngeal set of teeth located in the throat, along with their regular teeth. Cichlids have spiny rays in the back parts of the anal, dorsal, pectoral, and pelvic fins to help discourage predators. The front part of these fins are soft and perfect for precise positions and effortless movements in the water as opposed to fast swimming.

Cichlids have one nostril on each side while other fish have 2 sets. To sense "smells" in the water, they suck water in and expel the water right back out after being "sampled" for a short or longer time, depending on how much the cichlid needs to "smell" the water. This feature is shared by saltwater damselfish and cichlids are thought to be closely related.

The Blue Acara are fairly easy to care for provided their water is kept clean. Aquariums are closed systems and regardless of size will need some maintenance. With home aquariums the nitrate and phosphates build up over time and the water hardness increases due to evaporation. Because these fish are very sensitive to pollutants and pH instabilty, it is important that at least 15- 20% of the tank water is replaced weekly, especially if the tank is densely stocked. When performing the weekly water changes always use a gravel cleaner to make sure all of the decomposing organic matter that has built up is removed. The majority of of problems that occur with tropical fish tanks usually come down to one cause, decomposing organic matter!

The Blue Acara will need a minimum of a 30 gallon aquarium. The substrate should be made up of a soft sandy substrate with adequate caves and shaded places for the fish to retreat to if stressed. For a natural feel add dried leaf litter which will bring natural occuring microbe colonies as the leaves decompose. These colonies will also be a very important food source for any fry that may appear. Adding bags of aquarium safe peat will also give the tank the blackwater feel that they come from. These fish enjoy using plants for coverage and extra shade, but they are known to dig up the plants so it is best to have floating or potted plants. A tight fitting lid with moderate lighting is good for this fish and some natural sunlight will help bring out the most in their color. Since the Blue Acara prefer a strong amount of water movement, adding a strong canister filter or powerheads will aid in giving the proper amount of water movement. This fish can tolerate brackish water that has a specific gravity of less than 1.0002 and a salinity of about 10% of a normal saltwater tank..

The Blue Acara has been bred successfully in captivity. They are egg layers and tend to deposit their eggs upon flat surfaces open to the water (such as a flat rock at the bottom of the tank). They become sexually mature once they reach about 2 1/2 inches (6.35 cm), though most will begin to breed at 4 inches (10 cm). As the time to spawn approaches, the male and female will both begin to display, with their displays increasing in frequency the closer they are to spawning. Well adjusted pairs may spawn several times a year.

The breeding water should be neutral to slightly acidic with a pH of 6.5 - 7.0, soft to medium-hard at between 3 - 12° dGH, and have temperatures between 73 - 79° F (23 - 26° C). A ph of 7.0 and a temperature of 76° F and higher will help initiate breeding. A monogamous cichlid, the female lays the eggs on carefully cleaned rocks. Both parents will guard and care for the young.



Credit :

http://tankfishtips.com/wp-content/uploads//Aequidens_pulcher.jpg


http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/blueacara.php

Fish Data : Black Belt Cichlid



The attractive Black Belt CichlidParaneetroplus maculicauda (previously Vieja maculicauda and Cichlasoma maculicauda) is a popular choice for both beginner and experienced fishkeepers. As with most cichlids, the Black Belt Cichlid is an intelligent fish and can come to recognize and respond to a particular owner. In addition, the Black Belt presents a beautiful and unique red, black, and white color combination and a relatively docile temperament. These characteristics coupled with fairly easy maintenance and breeding requirments make this fish a wonderful choice for any devoted aquarist. 

Though they are large at a maximum of 12" and can be aggressive and are not considered a community fish, the Black Belt Cichlid has a somewhat more docile manner than many of its relatives. It can be kept with others of its own species, a group of 6 if they are raised together in a very large tank. In a breeding pair the male is not aggressive towards its mate if there is plenty of room, though it can become very territorial and aggressive towards others when spawning. These cichlids can also be kept with other Central and South American cichlids of a similar temperament as long as there is plenty of room. Aquariums 120 gallons or more can work well with these groupings while a single fish will require a recommended minimum of 70+ gallons. 

The Black Belt Cichlid is easy to moderate to care for as long as large and frequent water changes are diligently performed. They can be kept in both fresh and brackish water. They are not demanding and can take a wide range of pH, though it must be kept stable. They will feel at home with moderate or subdued lighting, and will appreciate a sandy substrate with a decor of bog wood, roots, and rocks having plenty of hiding places. Plants will not do well as they will be eaten. Provide flat smooth stones for spawning.

The Black Belt Cichlid is a deep bodied oval disk shape fish with pointed anal and dorsal fins. These are very large fish, with the males reaching almost 12" (30 cm) in length. They are also very deep bodied so its easy to underestimate their actual size. They have a lifespan of 8 - 10 years.
The body of the male is silvery white with a black band, either solid or sketchy, encircling the midsection just behind the pelvic fin. The caudal fins is all red or partially red and there is red blotching on the chin and throat that runs from the lips to just before the pelvic fin. The female is dark gray in color with a red tail and black freckling. Older fish, especially the males, develop a nuchal hump on the head. Because of its extensive distribution area in the wild, there are several color morphs.

All cichlids, along with some saltwater fish such as wrasses and parrotfish, share a common feature of a well-developed pharyngeal set of teeth located in the throat, along with their regular teeth. Cichlids have spiny rays in the back parts of the anal, dorsal, pectoral, and pelvic fins to help discourage predators. The front part of these fins are soft and perfect for precise positions and effortless movements in the water as opposed to fast swimming.

Cichlids have one nostril on each side while other fish have 2 sets. To sense "smells" in the water, they suck water in and expel the water right back out after being "sampled" for a short or longer time, depending on how much the cichlid needs to "smell" the water. This feature is shared by saltwater damselfish and cichlids are thought to be closely related.

The Black Belt Cichlids are fairly easy to care for provided their water is kept clean. Aquariums are closed systems and regardless of size all need some maintenance. With home aquariums the nitrate and phosphates build up over time and the water hardness increases due to evaporation. Because these fish are very sensitive to pollutants and pH instabilty, it is important that at least 25- 30% of the tank water should be replaced weekly, especially if the tank is densely stocked. When doing the weekly water changes always use a gravel cleaner to ensure all of the decomposing organic matter that has built up is removed. 

As with most predatory species a highly efficiant filter is needed because of the amount of waste that thet produce. The filters or a powerhead should provide moderate water movement for the Black Belt Cichlids.

As with most large cichlids, the Black Belt Cichlid needs a great deal of space. If keeping just one or two of these fish, an aquarium of at least 70 gallons is recommended. If keeping a small group of Black Belt Cichlids an aquarium of at least 120 gallons is recommended. These fish can be kept in freshwater or brackish water with low to moderate salinity of less than 1.010 sg. The substrate should be a smooth sand/gravel mix and decorated with twisted roots, bog wood, rocks, and caves large enough for the fish to retreat into. Providing flat smooth surfaces to the substrate will help facilitate spawning. No need to add plants to the tank unless they are planned to be used for food!

The Black Belt Cichlid requires very clean water and is sensitive to pH changes. To aid in accomplishing this, use highly efficient filtration systems that can provide moderate water movement. Canister or sump style filtration works best. A secure top should be installed with moderate lighting.

These fish are moderately aggressive and are not considered a community fish. However, a Black Belt Cichlid can be more docile or aggressive depending on the size of the tank you provide them with. If you provide a very large tank, 120 gallons or more, they can be kept with larger fish that have a similar or the same temperament. In aquariums with hundreds of gallons they are a lot less aggressive. If, however, two or more are kept in an aquarium of 60 gallons or less it is likely they will become aggressive towards one another.

Some experts have suggested maintaining these fish in a specieis specific tank and isolating them from other species. They can be kept alone or as a mated pair, or kept in a group of 6 if they grow up together in a very large tank. Make many places for the female to hide when spawning. Suitable tank mates for the Black Belt Cichlids are Texas Chichlids, Green Terror, Convicts, Synspilums, Pimelodids, large Characins, Tilapia and Hemichromis.

The Black Belt Cichlid has been bred in captivity. For breeding larger cichlids, this fish is a great choice. The male does not thrash the female like other large cichlids do as long as there is a lot of room, a 150 gallon tank or more. Provide flat smooth stones as a spawning substrate. The pair will circle each other, and after moving the gravel out of the way, the female will lay up to 600 eggs. The fry are free swimming in 8 days are are very small. They will eat artemia and grow quickly.


 Credit :


https://c1.staticflickr.com/5/4147/5188647903_fe82d0b027.jpg

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/BlackBeltCichlid.php


วันพฤหัสบดีที่ 5 กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2558

วันพฤหัสบดีที่ 29 มกราคม พ.ศ. 2558

Ocellated pufferfish picture




The scientific name of  this fish isMonotrete cutcutia , they are in the family fish who have 4 teeth (Tetraodontidae) it is a small fish like puffer fish " Sompong ". The body is flat fin slightly smaller body color or dark green. Flecked yellow or fade over the body. After dark stripes across Sides with the big black eyes, red tail with red or pink that is approximately 4-5 cm

They live in the streams and rivers in the south. By hiding under rocks or leaves the underwater for find a food including fish, crabs, snails, tadpoles and small shrimp.

There are other names, such as "dwarf puffer" or "puffer green points" and so on.


 picture credit :

Tarnandon Preechasatapon


Channa pleuropthalma picture



Channa pleuropthalma picture by Jibran Mohammed Shariff 

Fish data : Discus Fish cihlid




The majestic, graceful, and dignified Discus fish has been described as the "King of the Aquarium Fishes" for good reason. They are highly esteemed within the fish keeping hobby due to their dramatic coloring, refined shape, and regal bearing and are widely considered to be the pinnacle of tropical fish keeping. These quiet, peaceful, and elegant creatures inspire appreciation and dedication like no other fish.

Discus are considered part of the cichlid family and are categorized into three species, two of which have been long time standards and one which has been relatively recently described. The Green Discus Symphysodon aequifasciatus and its close relative the Heckel Discus or Red DiscusSymphysodon discus are the most recognized species. These two are found in the central and lower Amazon regions and are very similar in coloring and behavioral disposition. Both are considered valid species by the scientific community. The third species, the Blue Discus or Brown DiscusSymphysodon haraldi, was recently identified by Mr. Heiko Bleher and is awaiting further work to determine identification and validation.

There are many local color varieties, possibly due to natural hybridization, though most available Discus today are tank bred varieties. Through selective breeding a wide variety of body shapes, colors, and patterns are being produced. These tank bred varieties are widely divergent from the wild caught discus and tend to be better adapted to tank life, requiring less stringent care than their wild caught brethren. Even so, tank bred Discus are more demanding of good water quality, require a larger aquarium, and are more expensive than many tropical fish.

Discus were first imported into the United States and Europe in the 1930's and 1940's. Early efforts to ship and keep these fish proved exceptionally difficult, but much more is now known about their needs and requirements. An experienced and dedicated aquarist will find these fish a challenging and rewarding experience.

Discus are native to the South American countries of Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, and Columbia and are found inhabitating the tributaries of the Amazon River within those countries. These fish had previously been divided into several suggested species along with a number of subspecies, however, more recently there have been revisions of the Discus genus. From the study results published in the Journal of Fish Biology by Bleher, et al in 2007; and by Ready, Kullander, and Ferreira in 2006, three species are currently acknowledged and the classification of subspecies was eliminated.
The three acknowledged species include the Green DiscusSymphysodon aequifasciatus and the Heckel Discus or Red Discus Symphysodon discus. These are both considered valid species by the scientific community. The third species, identified by Heiko Bleher, is the Blue Discus or Brown DiscusSymphysodon haraldi. It is awaiting further work to determine identification and validation.

  • Green Discus Symphysodon aequifasciatus
    The Green Discus was described by Pellegrin in 1904. They originate in the central Amazon region, mostly from the Putumayo River in northern Peru, and from Brazil near Santarem and the lake of Tefé. Other common names they are known by are Red Spotted Discus and Tefé Discus.
  • Heckel Discus Symphysodon discus
    The Heckel Discus or Red Discus was described in 1840 by Dr. Johann Jacob Heckel. They are native to South America, originating from Brazil in the Rio Negro, Rio Trombetas north of the Amazon, and from the Rio Abacaxis south of the Amazon. This species, also commonly known as the Red Discus, is a bit more unique. See the Heckel Discus or Red Discus page for more information on this species
  • Blue Discus Symphysodon haraldi
    The Blue Discus was described by Schultz in 1960. This species can be found in the lower Amazon region. It is recognized but is awaiting further work to determine its validation. Other common names they are known by are Brown Discus.

A more recently discovered discus found in the western Amazon regions in 1959 is distinguished by a unique color form, sporting red spots on the anal fin and the body. Some have suggested that it be identified as Symphysodon tarzoo. However in a discussion with Mr. Bleher, he identifies it is the Green Discus. He says, "S. aequifasciatus - the Green Discus is found only in some areas of western Amazonia" and that... the name S. tarzoo is a synonym (a nomen nudum, or not an existing name)".
Discus fish live in the still or slow moving waters along the banks where they hide among tangled roots and branches. They feed on insect larvae, insects, and planktonic invertebrates.

The Green Discus S. aequifasciatus, a.k.a. Red Spotted Discus or Tefé Discus, are moderate in size and reach a lenght of about 6" (15 cm). Interestingly, though tank bred individuals can be highly variable in color and patterning, the wild caught individuals tend to be rather bland and unremarkable.
Instead of the dramatic coloring of the tank bred Discus, the wild Green Discus presents a dark brownish to green body. They have nine vertical bars along the body, but lack a bold centrally located bar. They have irregular metallic streaks along the belly, dorsal fin, anal fins, and on the dorsal area of the body of green, blue, or turquoise.

The Green Discus are perhaps the most popular of the three discus species. They are also the Discus which has been the focus of most of the development work and thus more is known about them and their classification information than any of the other Discus. 
Some color variants of the Green Discus include:
  • Solid colored varieties
    The desire to develop a solid blue color variety was one of the first challenges facing early Discus keepers and breeders. Once the variety was developed, the challenge was adapted to produce a solid red Discus. This hasn't been achieved quite yet, but many dedicated breeders are continuing to work on it. 
  • Turquoise varieties
    Of the many strains of captive bred Discus, the turquoise varieties are the most available. They are generally found in greens or blues. They can be solid or have vertical bars, and some will have beautiful effervescent color streaking.
    They have names such as Brilliant Turquoise Discus, Red Turquoise Discus, Giant Turquoise Discus, and Cobalt Turquoise Discus.
  • Red varieties
    The Red Spotted Discus or Tefé Discus is one of the most striking variants. It has red spots on its belly and tail, and sometimes over the entire body. It is also quite rare and expensive.
  • "Royal" - Streaked varieties
    These are popular strains that have blue or green streaks over the entire body. They are called the 'Royal' Green Discus or 'Royal' Blue Discus.

Blue Discus, Brown Discus: Symphysodon haraldi
The Blue Discus S. haraldi, a.k.a the Brown Discus, is considered one of the most beautiful and hardiest discus. They reach a length of about 5 inches (13 cm) and have a much more varied color pattern and can have a larger number of vertical bars (8 to 16) than either of the other two species of discus. They are not as colorful as the Green Discus or the hybrids.
Other common names they are known by include Common Discus, Gypsy, Semi Royal Blue, and Royal Blue. Although these two are the same species, there are some characteristic differences between the two types.

  • Blue Discus varieties
    Blue Discus varieties are very similar to the Brown varieties, though the Blues tend to have a slightly longer body while the Brown's is more rounded. They have a darker, almost purple brown body and nine vertical bars without a bold central bar. They often have blue horizontal stripes on the head, dorsal and ventral fins. The face is a deeper brown.

    Some hybrid strains are called Cobalt Discus, Powder Blue Discus, and Sky Blue Discus. A real beauty is the Cobalt Blue Discus. It is almost entirely blue and sometimes presents a dazzling metallic sheen. Other specialties will sometimes have blood red spots on the dorsal fins.

  • Brown Discus varieties
    Brown Discus varieties originate in the lower Amazon region in Brazil. They have light to dark brown bodies (sometimes reddish) and nine vertical bars (without the bold central bar). There are irregular streaks on the upper and lower fin areas. They usually display a yellowish coloring at the base of the dorsal fin, around the eye, and on the snout.

    They were regularly kept for a long time, however they are not as colorful as other varieties and are now less available.
Redder body colors are sometimes enhanced by adding such things as prawn eggs to their diet, or by adding chemicals to their water. This enhancement is not permanent and will fade in a couple of weeks. (The pictures shown here are captive bred hybrids).


The Discus should be kept only by an experienced fish keeper. They are notoriously diffucult to keep and have a reputation of intimidating even very experienced aquarists. One of the more challenging aspects of keeping Discus fish is the process of acclimating them to their new tank. Medium sized or larger Red Discus tend to respond the best to being transferred, yet even they find the process traumatic and stressful. This sensitivity coupled with the fact that Discus tend to grow fairly large implies it would be wise and humane to take steps to ensure they will not be moved very often or caused unwarranted stress. In other words, if you are considering buying a Discus fish you should consider buying an aquarium that will be suitably large enough to accommodate them no matter their size or life cycle. Try to buy aqarium setups that can act as permanent, as opposed to temporary, habitats for your Discus. 

When purchasing a Discus make sure to inspect the fish very well for signs of disease as they are very prone to ich and other stress related diseases that can be transfered into their new home and have a negative reaction on other tankmates.


Since they are carnivorous Discus will generally enjoy a wide variety of all kinds of live and frozen foods. Foods such as both frozen and live brine shrimp, bloodworms, chopped beef heart, and whiteworms are readily eaten by Discus. In addition, tank bred Discus are sometimes known to accept food in a flake or pellet form, though in general most Discus prefer the "real" thing. Be sure your food choices are high in quality and nutrition and that you provide a broad spectrum of different foods. Also, though they are carnivorous, they may enjoy eating small quantities of vegetation based foods and these should be offered every so often if your particular fish enjoys them.

Keep in mind they are slow feeders and take care to ensure they eat plenty of food, especially if they are living with rambunctious and hungry tankmates.

Also note, any live or dead material which is introduced into the aquarium has the potential of introducing dangerous bacteria or parasites into the aquarium. Therefore, it is recommended to quarantine any live foods in a seperate tank prior to feeding them to your Discus.

Discus require a strictly adhered to water change regiment of at least 25% every week. Discus are very sensitive to water fluctuations so make sure to test any water going back into the tank. Make sure when doing water changes to carefully vacuum the substrate throughly. Before vacuuming use a sponge or algae magnet to clean viewing panes and once the removed algae has settled on the bottom start vacuuming. Take great care when cleaning the tank to not cause unwarranted or excess stress to your fish as they are very prone to stress related diseases. 

A minimum 50 gallon aquarium is suitable for a single fish, though a much larger tank would be needed if keeping more. Because these fish are as tall as they are long, taller 'show' type tanks work best. They need good water movement along with strong and efficient filtration. Discus prefer an aquarium with warm, soft, and slightly acidic water; they tend to prefer wamer water than most tropical fish. Lower termperatures have the effect of increasing the Discus' susceptibilty to death and disease.
Discus have a timid nature and dislike moving shadows, excessive vibrations, and overly boisterous tank mates. It is best to keep their aquarium out of areas that have high traffic, lights being turned on and off, or rooms that are noisy. They are also very shy and more active at night.

A planted aquarium with an open area for swimming suits them well, but the plants need t
o be varieties that can tolerate warmer temperatures of 82° F and up. Some good plants selections are rosette plants like the Dwarf Lily Bulbs, Anubias Nana, MicroSword Grass, Jungle Vallisneria, Corkscrew Vallisneria, Water Onions, Ozelot Swords, Rangeri Swords, and Didplis Diandra; some of the aquatic stem plants like Rotala Indica; and some of the fern and moss type plants like the Java Fern and Subulata.

When you are first introducing these fish to your aquarium, refrain from bright lighting and be certain to provide caves and places for the fish to hide. They may initially prefer subdued lighting because of their shyness, but once they become comfortable normal aquarium lighting works fine.
Though difficult to care for and rather picky in their prefered aqaurium setup, Discus can provide great amounts of satisfaction to a diligent and observant fishkeeper.

Unlike many others in the cichlid family, discus are peaceful and highly social. They are not predatory and they do not burrow in the substrate. They are a schooling fish and prefer to be kept in groups of around 6 fish, but may not do very well if kept alone. Several discus can be kept together and they can be kept with some of the more peaceful tropical fish. They are slow feeders and need companions with a similar temperament.

Examples of good community companions would be a pair of dwarf cichlids or some clown loaches. Also a school consisting of 15 - 20 individuals of a single species of tetra works well. Good selections include Characin species like the Cardinal Tetra, Neon Tetra, Rummynose Tetra, Glowlight Tetra, Emperor Tetra, or Congo Tetra. It is suggested that you avoid Angelfishes and Corydoras Catfish, as these fish are prone to carrying internal parasites that can infect the discus.

Discus form nuclear families but will readily cross-breed with other discus. They are egg layers and will attach their eggs to plants, driftwood, rocks, and ornamentation in the aquarium. Though spawning and rearing of fry can be successful in harder water, for fertilization and egg development they require a total hardness no higher than 6° dGH. Water conditions for breeding should be slightly acidic, soft and warm. Have a pH of about 5.5 - 6°, hardness at about 3-10° dGH and have temperatures between 82 - 88° F (27.7 - 31° C).

The female will lay between 200 - 400 eggs which will hatch in about 60 hours. Fry consume a special mucus on the skin of the parents for the first 5 or 6 days.


 Credit :

http://www.atdiscus-jj.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/IMG_2433.JPG

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/discus.php

Fish data : Blood Parrot cichlid



The Blood Parrot is a fascinating looking fish that has been developed in captivity and does not appear in the wild. They have a roundish 'balloon' shaped body and a very small mouth. They are also known as the Bloody Parrot, Blood Parrot Cichlid, and Blood Parrotfish. Perhaps they are called Parrotfish because their nose looks like a 'parrot's' beak.

It is not uncommon for cichlids in captivity to interbreed among themselves. When they are in spawning mode, they will often respond to a fish of the opposite sex whether it is the same species or another fish of a closely related species. While the Blood Parrot's exact geneology is unknown, it is likely the result of such interbreeding between a combination of types of Central American and South American cichlids. 

These fish can be solid in color or have a "calico" patterning or blotching. They come in a variety of colors. ranging from basic pale or bright yellows, to oranges and reds. Dyed fish are often available in purples, pinks, blues, and other colors. These are generally sold as the 'Jellybean Parrot' and 'Bumble Gum Parrot'. There are also other names that describe them by their color such as 'Purple Parrot'. In addition, there are Blood Parrots described by their physical appearance such as the tailfin-less 'Love Heart Parrot' which resembles a heart.

The Blood Parrot will make a wonderful addition to the aquarium of both the beginner and more experienced aquarist. They are a shy and fish and should not be kept with aggressive tank mates. However, if you keep them in a community aquarium with similar sized fish, be aware that they can be territorial. They like an aquarium with lots of rock formations and caves for retreating and hiding. Plants are not essential though they do not harm them.

These fish should not be confused with the Parrot Cichlid Hoplarchus psittacus which is another freshwater cichlid from South America that is quite aggressive. They also have no relation to the saltwater Rivulated Parrotfish Scarus rivulatus (previously Callyodon fasciatus). There is also another popular cichlid hybrid called the Flowerhorn Cichlid. It too is very attractive but much difference in appearance than these Parrotfish.

The Blood Parrot is said to have been bred in Taiwan and the suggested parents are Central and South American cichlids. But it is up to speculation which parents actually produced the Blood Parrot. There are two different sets of parents suggested as the cross which created these hybrids:
First generation:
  • One commonly suggested cross is between two Central American cichlids:
    Midus Cichlid Amphilophus citrinellus (previously Cichlasoma citrinellum) and the Redheaded CichlidParaneetroplus synspilus (previously Cichlasoma synspilum)
  • The second commonly suggested cross is between a Central American cichlid and one of two South American Cichlids:
    the Red Devil Cichlid Amphilophus labiatus (previously Cichlasoma labiatum) and one of either the SeverumHeros severus (also called the Banded Cichlid) or the Blue-eye cichlid Cryptoheros spilurus (previouslyCichlasoma spilurum).
The behavior of the Blood Parrot hybrids is peaceful and shy. This is a characteristic only found in the Severums from South America. The other three Central American cichlids are quite aggressive.
Second generation:
  • A further developed variety is the "Convict Parrot Cichlid". They are a cross between a female hybrid Blood Parrot and a pink male Convict Cichlid Amatitlania nigrofasciata (previously Archocentrus nigrofasciatus and Cichlosoma nigrofasciatum). Some of these fish have been dyed as well, and they are also called the 'Jellybean' Parrot' or 'Bubble Gum' Parrot'.
  • Blood Parrots have reportedly been crossed with other cichlid species such as the Severum Heros severus and the Texas Cichlid Herichthys cyanoguttatus (previously Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum).

There may be other new varieties showing up down the road. In their book "Encyclopedia Of Exotic Tropical Fishes For Freshwater Aquariums", authors Glen S. Axelrod, Brian M. Scott, and Neal Pronek share the views of different hobbyists. They share that "some breeders argue that cross-breeding contributes to scientific knowledge of fish and their reproductive strategies, others believe it is arrogant and unethcal for humans to think they can improve on nature" and "there are over 20,000 known fish species already... so there is no need to create new ones". They also point out that problems can be created by exaggerating physical traits.

The Blood Parrot has a roundish 'balloon' shaped body. They have a very small mouth and perhaps they are called Parrotfish because their nose looks like a parrot's beak. They also have some other distinctions such as their deformed spines which gives them their unique shape and their overly large iris. Because they have exaggerated physical traits sometimes their small mouths do not close normally, making it more difficult for them to eat. Also their egg-shaped bodies make it difficult for them to swim naturally, and so they are awkward and lacking in grace.

They can be solid or have a 'calico' patterning or blotching and are available in a variety of colors from basic pale or bright yellows to oranges and reds. There are also color varieties which are dyed albinos or dyed light colored Blood Parrots. These are generally referred to as the 'Jellybean Parrot' and 'Bumble Gum Parrot', though their names can describe them by color such as the 'Purple Parrot'. Then there are Blood Parrots described by their physical appearance such as the 'Love Heart Parrot', which has no tail fin.

A further developed variety is the Convict Parrot Cichlid, which is also called the 'Jellybean' Parrot or 'Bubble Gum' Parrot'. This is actually a 'double hybrid' fish between a female hybrid Blood Parrot and a pink male Convict Cichlid. Blood Parrots have reportedly been crossed with other cichlid species such as the Severum and the Texas Cichlid. So there may be other new varieties showing up in the future.
All cichlids, along with some saltwater fish such as wrasses and parrotfish, share a common trait of a well-developed pharyngeal set of teeth located in the throat, along with their regular teeth. Cichlids have spiny rays in the back parts of the anal, dorsal, pectoral, and pelvic fins to help discourage predators. The front part of these fins are soft and perfect for precise positions and effortless movements in the water as opposed to fast swimming.

Cichlids have one nostril on each side while other fish have 2 sets. To sense "smells" in the water, they suck water in and expel the water right back out after being "sampled" for a short or longer time, depending on how much the cichlid needs to "smell" the water. This feature is shared by saltwater damselfish and cichlids are thought to be closely related.

Since they are omnivorous the Blood Parrot will generally eat all kinds of live, fresh, and flake foods. To keep a good balance give them a high quality flake food or pellet everyday. Feed brine shrimp (either live or frozen) or blood worms as a treat. Live guppies and goldfish will suffice when they get bigger. Proteins high in B-carotene will promote good coloring.

A 30 gallon tank will be fine for juveniles for the first couple of years, but for adults 55 gallons is suggested. They prefer slow to moderate moving water along with good efficient filtration.  Because thse fish are such messy eaters, a large canister filter will work best. The aquarium should have low to moderate lighting. Provide a substrate of fine dark sand along with rocks and roots for places to hide along with open areas for swimming.  Make sure to use a fairly soft substrate as these fish enjoy digging. Plants can also be included as they will not bother them.

The Blood Parrot has been known to breed, but most often their eggs are infertile unless they are paired with a non-hybrid fish. 


 Credit :

http://bbznet.pukpik.com/images/upload3/greenbull/eBK00a6t20060207231604&Y

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/blparrot.php