วันจันทร์ที่ 29 กันยายน พ.ศ. 2557

Fish Data : Daffodil Cichlid



   The Daffodil Cichlid is endemic to Lake Tanganyika, the largest African rift lake. These fish tend to inhabit the rocky shorelines in the southeastern part of the lake where the water is fairly shallow. The Daffodil Cichlid is named for the yellow coloration that can be seen on various parts of its body, offsetting an overal tan coloration. They may also exhibit blue or purple spots along with two dark bars just behind the eye which are bright blue in color. The dorsal fins of this species are lyre-shaped and most of the fins are tipped in blue.

    This pretty cichlid is not shy about swimming out in the open. But they do like an aquarium with lots of rock formations creating caves for retreating. A sandy substrate is best because though they are not avid diggers, they may dig out spawning territories around decor. Plants are not essential but if you should include them they won't harm them.

    These are a schooling fish that pair off only to breed, so are actually best kept in a group. They are generally peaceful and non aggressive with their own kind. They are not inclined to quarrel with others except when spawning, and then are very territorial. They are best kept in a species tank, or a group of these fish can be kept in a good sized aquarium with other similar types of Lamprologine Shell-dwellers. Other good tankmates are a large school of Herring cichlids of the Cyprichromis genus like the Sardine Cichlid Cyprichromis leptosoma, as well as the Goby Cichlids, Julidochromis species, and Tropheus species.

    Though the Daffodil Cichlids spend a good deal of their time spawning, they are a secretive shelter spawner. You may not even know they have spawned until you see small fry darting about. A pair of Daffodil Cichlids will spawn again and again. The older fry will help protect the younger ones, thus various ages of fry will be present in the same tank. This is an example of "stepped breeding".

Feeding :

    In the wild, Daffodil Cichlids live and feed in large schools containing hundreds of fish. This species feeds largely on small crustaceans, plankton and insect larvae as well as other invertebrates. In the home aquarium, however, these fish may accept a variety of foods including live and frozen Daphnia, brine shrimp and krill in addition to dried foods and vegetable matter. Feed a regular varied diet for optimum health and coloration.In the wild, Daffodil Cichlids live and feed in large schools containing hundreds of fish. This species feeds largely on small crustaceans, plankton and insect larvae as well as other invertebrates. In the home aquarium, however, these fish may accept a variety of foods including live and frozen Daphnia, brine shrimp and krill in addition to dried foods and vegetable matter. Feed a regular varied diet for optimum health and coloration.

Aquarium Setup

    The Daffodil Cichlid is active and will swim in all areas of the aquarium. For a species only tank, a minimum of 15 gallons is suggested, though 20 or 35 gallons is better. A larger tank of 50 gallons or more would be required if mixing with other species. They need good water movement along with very strong and efficient filtration. Lake Tanganyika is a very oxygen rich lake so bubblers need to be going day and night, even if there are plants. Regularly check nitrates and ph, nitrates should be no more than 25 ppm and a pH less than 7 is not tolerated. In addition keep an eye on total hardness and carbonate hardness. Avoid overfeeding and overstocking.

   Lake Tanganyika is the second to largest lake in the world, thus contributing to a low fluctuation in temperature and pH. All Tanganyika cichlids need stable temperatures kept within acceptable limits and lots of oxygen to survive. Temperatures under 72° F and over 86° F for too long is not tolerated by many of these fish. When treating for ich, a few days at 86° F is acceptable. The lake is also consistently alkaline with a pH of around 9, and very hard at about 12 - 14° dGH. In the aquarium most Tanganyika cichlids are fairly adaptable as long as conditions are close to these ideal ranges. Most important is that their water chemistry doesn't change much over time. The water needs to be well buffered and maintained with small, regular water changes.

  Salt is sometimes used as a buffering agent to increase the water's carbonate hardness. An alternative buffering approach is to use a chemical filtration method, where they water passes through layers of crushed coral or coral sand.  Interestingly, Tanganyikan cichlids also need iodine for the thyroid to function properly to regulate growth and development, and which can be achieved by adding iodized table salt to the water. Although rift lake cichlids need hard alkaline water they are not found in brackish waters. This cichlid has some salt tolerance so can be kept in slightly brackish water conditions. However it not suited to a full brackish water tank. It can tolerate a salinity that is about 10% of a normal saltwater tank, a specific gravity of less than 1.0002.


Provide a sandy or very small sized gravel substrate. Sand used for salt water tanks can help keep the pH up as well as the addition of crushed coral. Crushed coral and aragonite sands do tend to dissolve easier than salts. They need a lot of rocks piled up to create cave formations. Plants are not essential though they do not harm them. They don't tend to burrow unless they are digging out a spawning sight around the decor. Subdued lighting is also preferred.

BREEDING

   Brichardi are unique in a number of ways. First, this fish is an egg-laying substrate spawner, laying their eggs on a surface such as a stone, sandy pit, or empty snail shell. While this is not unique on its own, it is the only known substrate-spawning cichlid that schools. It is not unheard of to find a school numbering near 100,000 individuals within a 50 meter square area. Second, a unique characteristic of its spawning habits in the wild, are in the rearing of the fry. It is the only known fish in Africa that utilizes a collective nursery. This means that adults, juveniles, and even half-grown fry all participate in a multi-generational rearing of the fry. Brichardi individuals not only care for their own fry but the fry of those who spawn around them as well as keep vigil over other adults when actively spawning. Spawns of over 100 eggs are not uncommon. A Brichardi parent nurturing her fry.

   The fish will begin to breed in the aquarium as early as 2 inches and aren't choosy in selecting spawning mediums, and are known to spawn in rocks, shells and inverted flower pots. As in the wild, the parents will allow many generations of fry to stay within the territory, and the fry will assist the parents in guarding the youngest fry.


   An important consideration in selecting Brichardi for an aquarium is being aware of how protective this fish is in defending their fry.  It is not at all unheard of, for a single pair of  Brichardi to take over a mixed tank of Tanganyikans, even as large as a 75-gallon aquarium. They pair off earlier than most other cichlids. It is not uncommon to have a pair to have all of the other fish either huddled in the top corner, often with damage and even some fatalities.


Credits :

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/DaffodilCichlid.php

http://www.talkfishy.com/resources/fish-photos/cichlids/lake-tanganyika/600-daffodil-cichlid

http://africanriftlakecichlids.blogspot.com/2010/11/brichardi-cichlids.html

http://www.thekrib.com/Fish/N-daffodil.jpg




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Fish Data : Cylinder Cichlid



    The Cylinder Cichlid is a highly aggressive, solitary predator that is endemic to Lake Tanganyika; this species doesn't tolerate others of their kind unless it is their mate. There are several different color variations based on location; mainly it's a difference of their vertical bands (of which they all have ten) varying in shades of brown or being solid black; one color morph has electric-blue tips on all of its fins as well as an upturned, electric-blue arch-like marking under each eye; there is also another variant that has a gold hued head, but the color is lost once they mature. The Cylinder Cichlid is a popular species and is usually available within the hobby. They can be special ordered from local stores and often found within clubs as well as being available through online vendors.

    The Cylinder Cichlid requires an aquarium of 55 gallons or more and should be provided with a sand/crushed coral substrate with plenty of rocks around the tank creating multiple caves and crevices for hiding, spawning, and hunting. Open swimming space is appreciated, but not required as they tend to stay close to their rock caves. Decent water movement is recommended as it will benefit both the fish any live plants that are utilized. Live plants don't pose any problems as Cylinder Cichlids are not known to be diggers and will generally ignore the plants; African Water Ferns, Anubias, and Vallisneria are good choices and will do well in alkaline conditions; they will also provide extra cover for predator and prey alike. They are very aggressive species and should be kept solitary or in pairs as the dominant male will usually terrorize and end up killing the sub-dominant "competition". It's possible to keep one individual with other aggressive tank mates (that will not eat them for lunch), but they should not resemble the Cylinder Cichlid in any way.

Fish Keeping Difficulty

This is a fish best kept by intermediate and experienced cichlid keepers. It is an aggressive cichlid towards others of its own kind, but can be kept with other larger and robust Tanganyika. The aquarists must be willing to provide a properly set up aquarium with appropriate tank mates, and be willing to do frequent water changes.

Aquarium Hardiness: Moderately hardy
Aquarist Experience Level: Intermediate

Foods and Feeding

The Cylinder Cichlid is basically carnivorous in the wild, feeding primarily on small fish and crustaceans. In the aquarium they can be fed mysis shrimp, earthworm flake, frozen adult brine shrimp and once in a while spirulina. Other special food for carnivorous Lake Tanganyika cichlids are acceptable. It is suggested that you do not feed live foods and tubifex worms due to possible diseases and pathogens that may be transferred to your fish.

Feed 2 to 5 small pinches of food a day in smaller amounts instead of a large quantity once a day. A one-day-a-week 'fast' can also be beneficial. All fish benefit from vitamins and supplements added to their foods.


Do normal water changes of 10% to 15% a week, or more frequent depending on the nitrite/ammonia levels and stocking numbers. The Lake Tanganyika cichlids cannot handle large water changes very well unless the new water water chemistry closely matches the water they are in. This inability to tolerate large water changes is due to Lake Tanganyika being very deep and the water tends to stay stable.

Water Changes: Weekly - Water changes of 10-15% weekly are suggested, only do more if the water parameters are off. Be cautious of doing more frequent changes as these fish are very sensitive to new water.

Aquarium Setup

The Cylinder Cichlid is active but will swim mostly in the middle and bottom areas of the aquarium. A minimum 40 gallon tank for a single fish is suggested, and 55 gallons or more for a pair or if mixing with other species. They need good water movement along with very strong and efficient filtration. Lake Tanganyika is a very oxygen rich lake so bubblers need to be going day and night, even if there are plants. Regularly check nitrates and ph, nitrates should be no more than 25 ppm and a pH less than 7 is not tolerated. In addition keep an eye on total hardness and carbonate hardness. Avoid overfeeding and overstocking.

Lake Tanganyika is the second to largest lake in the world, thus contributing to a low fluctuation in temperature and pH. All Tanganyika cichlids need stable temperatures kept within acceptable limits and lots of oxygen to survive. Temperatures under 72° F and over 86° F for too long is not tolerated by many of these fish. When treating for ich, a few days at 86° F is acceptable. The lake is also consistently alkaline with a pH of around 9, and very hard at about 12 - 14° dGH. In the aquarium most Tanganyika cichlids are fairly adaptable as long as conditions are close to these ideal ranges. Most important is that their water chemistry doesn't change much over time. The water needs to be well buffered and maintained with small, regular water changes.

Salt is sometimes used as a buffering agent to increase the water's carbonate hardness. An alternative buffering approach is to use a chemical filtration method, where the water passes through layers of crushed coral or coral sand.  Interestingly, Tanganyikan cichlids also need iodine for the thyroid to function properly to regulate growth and development, and which can be achieved by adding iodized table salt to the water. Although rift lake cichlids need hard alkaline water they are not found in brackish waters. This cichlid has some salt tolerance so can be kept in slightly brackish water conditions. However it not suited to a full brackish water tank. It can tolerate a salinity that is about 10% of a normal saltwater tank, a specific gravity of less than 1.0002.

Many caves and a lot of rock work will make the Cylinder Cichlid comfortable. They are aggressive and need a lot of room. Provide a sandy to very small sized gravel substrate. Plants may help the fry to survive and can be arranged in a very pleasing manner. Hardy plants that do well in hard, alkaline water and don't need a lot of light, like Anubias and Vallisneria, can make a nice addition. For a different or varied look you can plant on the porous rock with such species as Water Fern and Java Fern.

Minimum Tank Size: 40 gal (151 L) - A minimum of 40 gallons is the suggested for a single fish, with 55 gallons or more for a pair or if mixing with other species.
Suitable for Nano Tank: No
Substrate Type: Sand/Gravel Mix
Lighting Needs: Moderate - normal lighting
Temperature: 77.0 to 82.0° F (25.0 to 27.8° C)
Breeding Temperature: 77.0° F - Breeding temperature ranges between 77 - 82.4° F (25 - 28 C).
Range ph: 8.6-9.5
Hardness Range: 10 - 13 dGH
Brackish: Sometimes - alt is not found in their natural environment, but they do have a slight tolerance, keep levels below 10% - a specific gravity of less than 1.0002.
Water Movement: Moderate
Water Region: Middle - These fish will swim in the middle and bottom areas of the aquarium.
Social Behaviors

The Cylinder Cichlid can be kept in pairs or singly. They are generally aggressive toward those of the same species, and with their sharp teeth, they can make quick elimination of conspecifics. They will tolerate those of a different genus as long as they are larger and colored differently.

This is an aggressive community fish, but may be kept with robust and larger Lake Tanganyika Cichlids that shoal, such as those of the genera Neolamprologus, Altolamprologus, and Cyprichromis. Do not keep with other fish that have similar body shapes and size, such as Julidochromis, or other fish that occupy territories similar to that of the Cylinder Cichlid. Males will kill any fish that is subdominant.

Temperament: Aggressive
Compatible with:
Same species - conspecifics: Sometimes - They are aggressive towards conspecifics, accept as a breeding pair.
Peaceful fish (): Threat
Semi-Aggressive (): Monitor
Aggressive (): Safe
Large Semi-Aggressive (): Monitor
Large Aggressive, Predatory (): Threat
Slow Swimmers & Eaters (): Threat
Shrimps, Crabs, Snails: Threat - is aggressive
Plants: Safe
Sex: Sexual differences

No way to tell the difference between males and females until they are adults, then the male may be a little larger.

   Cylinder Cichlids are considered to be "substrate-spawners", but they continually prove otherwise by utilizing caves; the female will lay her eggs in a cave (generally 50-200) and the male with fertilize them soon afterwards; the female will defend and care for the eggs while the male defends the territory. The eggs will hatch in about 10 days and free-swimming fry will start to venture out on their own a week later. The fry can be fed and raised on Artemia nauplii, baby brine shrimp, and crushed flake food.



Credits :

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/CylinderCichlid.php

http://www.aquariumdomain.com/viewFreshwaterAfricanCichlid.php?id=75

http://www.inaquarium.com/neolamprologus-cylindricus.php




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วันพุธที่ 24 กันยายน พ.ศ. 2557

Heros sp Notatus cichlids picture

These is Heros sp Notatus cichlids  picture





Credits : 

 

                                                 by Mephistocichlids

วันจันทร์ที่ 22 กันยายน พ.ศ. 2557

Golden Stingray picture

Golden Stingray picture ^ _ ^




Credit pictures by Chanin Thorut






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Beautiful red Betta picture










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วันอาทิตย์ที่ 7 กันยายน พ.ศ. 2557

Fish Data : Convict Julie Cichlid




   The Convict Julie Julidochromis regani is an attractive cichlid found in Lake Tanganyika, Africa. It is slender and elongated with a pleasing color pattern. Most varieties have a nice contrast of three to four brown horizontal stripes over a background of varying shades of yellow. Some have a beautiful yellows on the belly and in the pectoral fins.

   They are reported to grow up to lengths of 12 inches (30 cm) in the wild but rarely get that large in the aquarium. Females are always the larger fish, commonly reaching about 6 inches (15 cm) in length, with males reaching only about 4 inches (10 cm). Other common names it is known by include the Striped Julie, Giant Julie, Yellow Julie, and Regani. The name 'Yellow Julie' is also commonly used for its close relative the Ornate Julie Julidochromis ornatus, which has a very similar appearance.

   There are several slightly different color pattern variations of the Convict Julie, and all are very attractive. Color morphs vary depending upon the location in Lake Tanganyika where each specimen is collected. It is said that those from shallower waters will be more yellow while those from deeper water are darker. They are sometimes named for the area which it comes from, some examples include Julidochromis regani "kipili", Julidochromis regani "gold sambia" and Julidochromis regani "mboka".

   These cichlids make a great choice for the beginning cichlid keeper, and are appealling to advanced aquarists as well. They are the most tolerant of the Julidochromis genus. You can keep just one specimen, a pair, or even a group of these fish if the aquarium is very large. When kept in a group that includes males, they will form pairs generally for life. They also do well in a community cichlid tank. Keep them with other Tanganyika cichlids that are similar in size. However it is important to keep conspecific varieties and similar species separate to prevent hybrids.

   They are moderately easy to care for as long as regular water changes are done to keep water at optimal levels. A minimum 20 gallon tank for a single fish is suggested, and 40 gallons or more for a community type tank. They are ready eaters and hardy. Provide them with a sandy or fine gravel substrate along with lots of rockwork with caves and crevices for them to retreat and spawn. Hardy plants like Sagittaria and Vallisneria can make a nice addition. They will not harm plants though they may burrow when spawning. These fish will breed in captivity, and the plants will provide cover for the newly hatch fry.

   Convict Julies should be housed in an aquarium of 55 gallons or more and be provided with a fine sand substrate. They should also be provided with plenty of rock formations and live plants for hiding places and shelter similar to their natural environment (this will help fry survive if breeding is of interest); driftwood can also be used and would provide a good medium for certain African plants that have no problem adhering to various surfaces. The Convict Julie prefers good water movement and enough space to swim around freely without having to turn immediately turn around. They are a relatively peaceful and can be housed with a variety of other tank mates, although they should not be kept with the extremely aggressive species.

   The Convict Julie is omnivorous and feeds on invertebrates, insect larvae, mollusks, and crustaceans among the aufwuchs in their natural environment. In the aquarium their diet should consist of a variety of live, frozen, and freeze-dried bloodworms, daphnia, plankton, brine shrimp, and mysis shrimp, as well as vitamin-enriched flake foods and pellets. Feed what will be consumed in a few minutes, one to two times daily.

   Convict Julies are cave spawners. The female will lay her eggs in a cave and the male with fertilize them soon afterwards; the female will defend and care for the eggs while the male patrols their territory. The fry can be fed and raised on Artemia nauplii.


Credit by :

http://www.aquariumdomain.com/viewFreshwaterAfricanCichlid.php?id=73

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/ConvictJulie.php

http://i.ytimg.com/i/41QZmfXe8UfVUv9po-CL2w/mq1.jpg




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Fish Data : Compressed Cichlid


compressed cichlid


   The Compressed Cichlid Altolamprologus compressiceps is specialized for life in its natural habitat with some distinguishing features. The species name "compressiceps" is derived from its very laterally compressed head and body. It also has a high back and deep mouth. Other common names it is known by include Compressiceps Cichlid, Lamp Compressiceps, and Comps Cichlid.

    This cichlid's unusual body shape is adapted for the only environment it inhabits in the wild, rocky rubble areas. It is not found where there are sandy substrates or even where the rocks are covered with silt or sediment. Its shape allows it to to slip easily through narrow cracks and crevices in rocks. There it hides and preys on small fish and aquatic invertebrates.

    It is closely related to a very similar looking relative, the White Pearly CalvusAltolamprologus calvus. But although these two look much the same, there are several differences. The Compressiceps has a pattern of bold pronounced vertical barring with very subdued, indistinct spots while the Calvus is brightly spotted with less distinct stripes. In body the Compressiceps is thicker in width, has a higher back, and has a sloping forehead with a blunt upturned snout. The Calvus has a longer, shallower body giving it a more streamlined appearance. The Compressiceps also grows larger, reaching up to 6 - 7 inches, while the smaller Calvus is only attains a length of about 5 - 6 inches.

   There are several geographic color variations of this cichlid. Overall its body is patterned with between 8 to 12 dark vertical bars and white to bluish spots. But its color can range in a variety of hues from dark browns, to reds, yellows or rusty oranges. Different variations are often named for their locality and/or color, some of which are theAltolamprologus compressiceps "Gold Head Muzi", "Chaitika Orange", "Gold Head Kasanga", "Gold Head Mutondwe", and "Nangu".

   One of the most unique Compressiceps is a dwarf, shell dwelling variant. It is commonly known as theAltolamprologus compressiceps "Sumbu Dwarf" or "Sumbu Shell". In looks pretty much like the others, but with yellowish orange pectoral fins and it is usually smaller. Reportedly it can grow almost as large as the others in captivity, but in the wild the males will only reach about 3 1/2 inches (9 cm) in length and the females between 1 3/4 to 2 inches (4.5 - 5 cm). In behavior it is similar as well, except for its preferred home. The Compressed Cichlids will inhabit the deep crevices of rocks and boulders and occasionally large shells, so can be called "opportunistic shell dwellers". But this variant is a natural shell dweller, inhabiting and breeding in shells.

   This is a good fish for the intermediate and experienced cichlid keeper. It is moderate to easy to care for, however it can be a somewhat picky eater until established and is susceptible to disease. Many specimens are wild caught, and a wild caught fish is as fragile as it is handsome. Captive breed specimens are generally more durable and easier to acclimate. An aquarium best suited to this fish would be at least 40-50 gallons with a sandy bottom and lots of rock formations for hiding places. Though plants are not essential, this cichlid does not burrow and will not harm them.
These cichlids are usually quiet and peaceful with other fish. They can be kept in a community aquarium as long as the tank mates are not too small. Only a single pair should be kept in a community tank with other Lake Tanganyika cichlids as it can get territorial with its own species. To keep more than one will take a larger aquarium to make sure there is lots of room.
Just a word of caution, despite the quiet fragile nature of the Compressed Cichlid it does have some defenses. They are not usually an aggressor, but if attacked by another fish they do have tough sharp scales on their flanks. They will defend themselves by bending their body to extend these sharp scales. They need this protection because they are sensitive to any type of jaw locking. Their jaws are sensitive and easily dislocated. Dr. Herbert R. Axelrod also cautions when handling this fish, to do it carefully.

Species name: Altolamprologus compressiceps

Synonym: Lamprologus compressiceps; Neolamprologus compressiceps

Common name: Compressed Cichlid

Family: Cichlidae

Order: Perciformes

Class: Actinopterygii

Maximum size: 12 cm / 5 inches

Environment: freshwater

Origin: Endemic to Lake Tanganyika, Africa

Temperament: Aggressive

Company: Best kept with other Tanganyika cichlids of similar size.

Water parameters: temperature 23-25˚C / 73-77˚F; pH 7.0 – 8.0

Aquarium setup: Altolamprologus compressiceps (Compressed Cichlid) is best kept in a not to small aquarium tank with a lot of caves created from rocks. It is possible to use plants in the decoration but not necessary. 

Feeding: Prefers frozen food and shrimp. Altolamprologus compressiceps (Compressed Cichlid) sometimes accept dry food but not always.

Breeding: Altolamprologus compressiceps (Compressed Cichlid) breeds on caves and shells. The cave should be too small for the male to enter. The fmelae lays the eggs in the cave and guards them until they hatch. The male guards the territory sorrunding the cave. The male will eat the fry so the female and the eggs will have to be removed to another aquarium where she can raise her young. It is therefore best to offer the fishes shells as suitable spawning places.. You can then move the shell with the femal and eggs inside it. The female usually don’t leave the cave/shell during the time she is guarding her eggs. If the fishes have spawned in something else then I sheel the best way to raise the fry is to try to remove them by siphoning them from the breeding aquarium tank immideatly after they leave the cave.


Credits :

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/lampcompress.php

http://www.aquaticcommunity.com/fish/compressedcichlid.php

http://www.fishchannel.com/images/article-images/freshwater-aquariums/cichlid-pop-2-500.jpg



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Fish Data : Callochromis Macrops Cichlid

   

  The Large-Eyed Mouthbrooder Callochromis Macrops (previously Paratilapia macrops) is a very pretty cichlid. It has the most distinctive large colorful eyes and that is the one thing that you notice right away. Its body too is beautifully colored, but the coloring is quite variable depending on where its from. This species can range in color tones from beautiful reds, oranges, and yellows to bright blues, lavenders, and browns.

   This is a moderately sized cichlid from Lake Tanganyika, Africa. the males males reach just over 5 inches (13.5 cm) in length, with females a bit smaller. It is often simply referred to by its scientific name Callochromis Macrops. But other common names used for it include Large-Eyed Mouthbrooder, Big Eye Mouthbrooder, Southern Large-Eyed Muzzle Cichlid, and Southern Bigeye-Mouthbrooder. Others are Macrops "Red", and in german "Southern Large-Eyed Muzzle Breeder" (Sudlicher GroBaugen-Maulbruter).

   Each location in the lake has a different color variation, so these cichlids are also named for regions of the Lake where they are found. Some of these that are occasionally seen include Callochromis Macrops "Ndole Bay" or "Ndole Bay Red", Callochromis Macrops "Moliro" or "Red", Callochromis Macrops "Kasanga", and others such as "Tanzania", "Isanga", "Kafungi", "Kantalamba", "Katoto", and "Namansi".

   This is a very beautiful sand dwelling cichlid, but it is also more aggressive. It can be kept with featherfins and other sand cichlid species, but will not get along well with conspecifics. It should be kept singly or in groups in a larger aquarium. They are actually only mildly aggressive to other fish that do not have a similar size or shape.

   Popular because of its compact size and color, this cichlid is easy to moderate to care for as long as regular water changes are done to keep the water quality optimal.  It is a fish best obtained by intermediate and experienced cichlid keepers as they need a large aquarium and are very delicate and sensitive to handling and shipping. Provide them with a sandy substrate along with lots of rock formations and plants. This fish will breed in captivity, building nests in the sand. The plants will provide cover for the the females and newly hatch fry.

   It is much easier to tell the difference between male and female with this species than it is with other Lake Tanganyikan cichlids. The females are typically smaller and silver, making it easier to obtain a balanced group of one male and several females. Males of the "red" variety are very nicely marked adding a nice contrasting color to the tank. Tank raised males seem less aggressive toward females. Do not house more than one male. It is important to keep conspecific varieties and similar species separate as they will hybridize freely.

 Habitat: This is the primary location where the cichlid is found and is a generalization. This does not
  mean a fish cannot be found in other habitats.

 Diet: Many cichlids specialize in eating one type of food; notwithstanding, some of these specialized
  feeders are flexible and can be opportunistic feeders.

 Temperament: This describes the overall demeanor of a cichlid toward other tankmates that
  are of a different species. Consider that there is variability in temperament due to various factors,
  including aquarium size, tankmates of similar appearance, stocking levels, and order of introduction.
  There may even be some variability among individual specimens.

 Conspecific Temperament: This describes the overall demeanor of a cichlid toward other tank-
  mates of the same species. Consider that there is variability in temperament due to such factors as
  aquarium size, stocking levels and order of introduction. There may even be some variability among
  individual specimens.

 Maximum Size: This is in regards to total length (including the tail) of typical aquarium specimens.
  Wild specimens may not attain this size, or may in fact grow larger than aquarium raised individuals
  due to various factors. Also consider that this is the typical maximum size and there are exceptional
  individuals that will exceed it.

 Difficulty: This measure is a relative value, comparing a single species against all other cichlids.
  This only accounts for maintanence in the aquarium and not breeding considerations.
  1 = easy and forgiving, 5 = extremely challenging.

Breeding / Reproduction

    The Callochromis Macrops has been bred in captivity and will often spawn in the community tank. Though they are mouthbrooders, males do not form a bond with the females. The females care for the young alone. The male forms a nest from a pile of sand that is about 13" (35 cm) and near a spawning platform. Thus the need to use sand as a substrate.

   The male pursues the female to lure her to his nest. There he makes his egg spotted anal fin appear to be a 3 dimensional egg by folding it. This tricks the female into laying her eggs. Once she lays the eggs, she picks them up in her mouth. She then notices the other "egg" on the male's anal fin . She mouths that area until he releases sperm, which she takes into her mouth to fertilize the eggs. The female will carry the eggs for several weeks and can produce a clutch ranging from 25 to 60 fry. She will protect them for a few weeks after being released.

Fish Diseases

   The Large-Eyed Mouthbrooder is susceptible to typical fish ailments, especially if water is stale and of poor quality and oxygenation. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Water changes, not overfeeding or overcrowding, and observation along with feeding your fish the proper foods (thawing frozen food and adding vitamins) will keep them in optimum health. For freshwater an optional practice is to add 1 heaping teaspoon of salt per 11 gallons of water. This is considered to be a simple and natural remedy for wounds, minor fungal infections and film over the eyes of fish in transit. Using a marine salt (used for salt water fish) will add some trace elements.

   One common problem is Ich. It can be treated with the elevation of the tank temperature to 86° F (30° C) for 3 days. If that does not cure the Ich, then the fish needs to be treated with copper (remove any water conditioners). Several copper based fish medications are available for Ich. Copper use must be kept within the proper levels, so be sure to follow the manufacturers suggestions. A copper test also can be used to keep the proper levels. You can also combine increasing the temperature with an Ich medication treatment.

   As with most fish they are susceptible to skin flukes and other parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.), fungal infections, and bacterial infections. It is recommended to read up on the common tank diseases. Knowing the signs and catching and treating them early makes a huge difference. For information about freshwater fish diseases and illnesses


Credits :

http://www.cichlid-forum.com/profiles/species.php?id=1948

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/CallochromisMacrops.php

http://www.airfish.de/assets/images/Callocmacropsdole.jpg



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Trichopodus trichopterus picture


Trichopodus trichopterus in aquarium tank ^ _ ^



Credit picture by Piya Phanrat





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Beautiful Archer Fish picture



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วันพุธที่ 3 กันยายน พ.ศ. 2557

cichla kelberi picture





Cichla kelberi picture



Credit Picture by Komrat Sun T





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