วันอาทิตย์ที่ 31 มีนาคม พ.ศ. 2556

Fish Data : Venustus Cichlid





    These  is a large cichlid with the male having a blue face with yellow markings across the head and dorsal fin. The female is less colorful with a silver background behind a dark blotched pattern. This species  is closely related to Nimbochromis livingtonii. Both are popular cichlids reguarly found in pet stores. Nimbochromis venustus is sometimes called the Giraffe Hap because of the blotchy patches that appear on females (see photo at right) and sub-adult males. Males in breeding dress have a bright blue head and yellow-green sheen to the flanks partially covering the "giraffe" splotches. There appears to be quite a bit of difference between individuals depending on age, position in the hierarchy and the presence of breeding color.The common name for this fish is the Giraffe Hap
    These cichlid is fairly hardy and easy to keep. Like all Malawian cichlids, it appreciates hard water and temperatures of 76 to 80F. Nimbochromis venustus grows up to 10 inches; a group of six to eight adults would do best large tank of at least 100 gallons. Smaller specimens can be kept in correspondingly smaller aquaria.
   They are an ambush predator. It has been observed burrowing into the sand where it's splotchy coloration acts a camouflage. Because of this habit, provide a soft substrate of sand or fine gravel. A sharp substate combined with poor water quality can quickly lead to eye cloudiness in this fish.
    Like other predators cichlid that live in the sandy habitat, They are strong and swift swimmers. In the nature, Nimbochromis venustus is an opportunistic feeder. Much has been written about its habit as a paedophage (fry eater) where the ambush technique previously mentioned comes into play. Stomach contents have revealed, however, a variety of zoo plankton and other materials, so as you'd expect, this fish is easy to feed in captivity. Breeder can fed them with Tetra Cichlid Flakes, spirulina flakes, Aquadine Duraflakes, frozen brine shrimp and Tetra Cichlid Sticks.ETC.
 Tank Setup
  • Minimum Tank Size: 125 gal (473 L) - Juveniles can be kept in a 70 gallon tank, but for adults 125 gallons is suggested.
  • Suitable for Nano Tank: No
  • Substrate Type: Sand
  • Lighting Needs: Moderate - normal lighting
  • Temperature: 73.0 to 82.0° F (22.8 to 27.8° C)
  • Range ph: 7.7-8.6 - Venustus can tolerate a ph that's just above 7.0, but prefer 8.0 or higher.
  • Hardness Range6 - 10 dGH
  • Brackish: Sometimes - Salt is not found in their natural environment, but they do have a slight tolerance, keep levels below 10% - a specific gravity of less than 1.0002.
  • Water Movement: Moderate
  • Water Region: Middle - These fish will swim in the middle and bottom areas of the aquarium.
Social Behaviors
     These Cichlid is not considered to be a community fish. They are voracious predators, but they are only moderately aggressive accept when spawning. They do best in a species specific tank or with other cichlids. Some aquarists report severe aggressiveness, which could be due to inadequate housing. They should not be kept with Mbunas (smaller rock dwelling cichlids). Some have put them with others of there same genus, though in very large systems to promote the spawning colors.
The Venustus is best kept in groups of one male and several females. They will shoal together if there are quite a few (6 to 8 adults in 125 gallons). They will attack and kill any other males of the same species in the tank unless the tank is large. If overstocking is used as a form of aggression reduction, care should be taken to do several partial water changes a week. Do not put this fish with peaceful cichlids.
  • Temperament: Semi-aggressive - Although they are voracious predators, if the tank is large enough they are only moderately aggressive accept when spawning.
  • Compatible with:
    • Same species - conspecifics: Yes - They are best kept in groups of 1 male with several females. The male will attack and kill another male unless the tank is very large. If there are 6-8 adults they will shoal together.
    • Peaceful fish (): Threat
    • Semi-Aggressive (): Safe
    • Aggressive (): Monitor
    • Large Semi-Aggressive (): Monitor
    • Large Aggressive, Predatory (): Threat
    • Slow Swimmers & Eaters (): Threat
    • Shrimps, Crabs, Snails: Threat - is aggressive
    • Plants: Monitor
Sex: Sexual differences
     The Males Cichlid have brighter blue or yellow coloring with muted patterning, and females are blander in color with more pronounced patterning.
Breeding / Reproduction
    The Venustus is polygamous in nature with a male attending several females, and they form a matriarchal family. This cichlid has been bred in captivity. It is suggested to get a group of six to eight juveniles and let them grow up together. They like a flat stone or slate to lay their eggs. Make sure this breeding site is not near a strong water flow since the eggs are externally fertilized.
    Being a mouth brooder the female will pick up the eggs into her mouth for incubation. She will carry 60 to 120 eggs for over a month, and will allow the hatched fry to hide in her mouth for up to 10 days, after which they are on their own. If the tank is very "busy" she may let the eggs go too soon, so you may have to strip her of all eggs a few days after spawning and incubate them for around 13 days. On her own, she will hold them in her mouth for about 2 weeks.
    This would be a good time to take them out of the tank as the male has no qualms about eating his children! The fry can eat cyclopeeze and finely crushed flake. They will color up like the female in a short time and grow quickly. In a species specific tank, adding a young male is asking for trouble, though in a mixed tank, you can sometimes get away with more than one subordinate male. 

Credits :

http://badmanstropicalfish.com/profiles/profile112.html
http://badmanstropicalfish.com/profiles/profile112.html
http://www.liveaquaria.com/product/prod_display.cfm?c=830+831+942&pcatid=942
http://www.gcca.net/malawi-cichlid-profiles-list/77-nimbochromis-venustus#.UVfUmxdxTa4
http://www.aquariumdomain.com/viewFreshwaterAfricanCichlid.php?id=72



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