วันจันทร์ที่ 4 กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2556

Fish Data : Livingston’s Cichlid


       Nimbochromis livingstonii, or Livingston’s cichlid, is a freshwater mouthbrooding cichlid fish of the genus Nimbochromis, native to Lake Malawi, an African Rift Lake. Other names it is known by include Livingston's Cichlid, Livingston's Hap, and Livingstonii.

      The Livingstone Cichlid requires a tank of at least 400 litres or more with plenty of rocks for territories, sand and gravel substrate and hardy plants; they also need a lot of swimming space so a large tank is recommended. The Livingstone cichlid is an 'utaka' fish, which are usually more peaceful then mbuna cichlids, but it can hold its own when provoked, so should only be kept with larger fish; it is not suitable for a community setup

      You can use some substrate like a sand will make them feel most at home. Make sure there are lots of hiding places in rocks and wood. They need some open areas in which to swim so its best to place them towards the back of the aquarium. They also like lots of plants, such as Vallisneria, which creates a more natural environment for them. Even though these fish will burrow, they don't disturb them.

     The Livingstoni are omnivorous, so but in the wild they habitually feed on fish so can be considered a piscivore. In the aquarium they do best with a high protein diet, so can be fed live or frozen food, freeze dried krill, pellets, and other high quality foods for piscivores. Occasionally feed mysis and feeder fish, though feeder fish can initiate hunting instincts and cause more aggression.

       These fish need herbivorous foods as well to balance out their diet. Young up to 3 to 4" can be fed flake, but after that flake is too messy and will foul the water. Adults do best when fed frozen foods twice a week. They will eat to the point of their stomach being distended, so be very careful to not overfeed.

       They are not community fish. Though only moderately aggressive, they are predaceous and will eat anything small. They are best kept in a species tank or with other cichlids. They are relatively peaceful among themselves, but get very territorial when spawning. They should not be kept with Mbunas (smaller rock dwelling cichlids). Also don't put this fish with peaceful cichlids.
        
      Since they are polygamist breeders they are best kept in groups of one male and several females l (three or more). During spawning they will attack and kill any other males of the same species in the tank unless the tank is large. If overstocking is used as a form of aggression reduction, care should be taken to do several partial water changes a week.
           
      These Cichlids are egg layers and form matriarchal families. They are polygamous in nature with a male attending several females. This cichlid has been bred in captivity. It is best to place one male with at least three females.

      Unlike others in this genus, they do not dig a spawning pit. They like a flat stone or slate to lay the eggs on. Thefemale will lay up to 100 eggs. Being a mouth brooder she will then pick up the eggs into her mouth for incubation. She will care for the larvae and eggs and when they become fry, she will take them into her mouth at night or anytime she percieves danger. The fry can eat cyclopeeze and finely crushed flake. 


Credits:

http://www.redorbit.com/education/reference_library/science_1/fish/2579000/livingstons_cichlid/

http://aquaworldexpimp.en.ecplaza.net/livingstones-cichlid--139219-685088.html

http://www.google.co.th/imgres?hl=th&sa=X&tbo=d&biw=1280&bih=886&tbm=isch&tbnid=bpkd2KgJlOVOrM:&imgrefurl=http://www.fishtankforum.co.uk/forum/viewtopic.php%3Ff%3D74%26t%3D2673&docid=nXl19V0gfuPKTM&imgurl=http://i585.photobucket.com/albums/ss294/fishtankforum_2009/nimbochromislivingstonii.jpg&w=500&h=375&ei=ybIPUZC8CsLlrAe77oDIBQ&zoom=1&ved=1t:3588,r:2,s:0,i:88&iact=rc&dur=1643&sig=102730247700477325283&page=1&tbnh=158&tbnw=192&start=0&ndsp=20&tx=143&ty=80



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