วันอาทิตย์ที่ 29 ธันวาคม พ.ศ. 2556

Fish Data : Pseudotropheus Barlowi Cichlid


http://peabody.research.yale.edu//CICHLID/LL/lombardoi_akio_kaesermann.jpg

Trade names and synonyms : Pseudotropheus barlowi, Maylandia barlowi, Pseudotropheus fuscus, Golden fuscoides.

Size : About 10 cm (4 in.).

The Pseudotropheus Barlowi or Golden Fuscoides Maylandia barlowi (previously Pseudotropheus barlowi) is a pretty zebra-type cichlid from Lake Malawi, Africa. Though not scientifically described until 1986, it was previously sold in the hobby under the names Pseudotropheus 'Zebra Fusco', Pseudotropheus Fuscoides, and Pseudotropheus Fuscus. It was a popular Mbuna in years past and then demand for them waned, but they are now gaining popularity again.

This cichlid is believed to have been available since the mid to late 1970's. When finally described, it was named after George Barlow, an American ichthyologist, and both its scientific and common name became Pseudotropheus Barlowi. More recent revisions split the Pseudotropheus genus into three sub-genera with this fish being placed in the sub-genus Pseudotropheus Maylandia. It is currently considered valid as Maylandia barlowi, but this is after much debate on the naming of this sub-genera. Consequently three names are commonly used for this fish in the hobby including Pseudotropheus barlowi, Maylandia barlowi, and Metriaclima barlowi.

This fish is a member of a group of cichlids called Mbunas. There are 13 genera full of very active and aggressive personalities of Mbuna cichlids. The name Mbuna comes from the Tonga people of Malawi and means "rockfish" or "rock-dwelling". This name aptly describes the environment these fish live in as opposed to being open water swimmers like the Utaka cichlids and other "haps".
Growing to only four or five inches in length, the Pseudotropheus Barlowi is a big personality in a little package. Their coloring is dependant on location, but in general the males are all a golden yellow with the anal fin being blue and having one yellow egg spot and the female is brown. They are not demanding and their bright yellow coloring is a great addition of color to the Mbuna tank. With their spunky personality they can hold their own.

These fish are not community tank specimens, but can be housed with other cichlids. They are great fish for both the intermediate and experienced cichlid keeper. Because of their smaller size they are a moderate to care for, but the males are aggressive toward the females. A male needs to be kept with three or more females to help dampen the aggression. Keeping them in a large aquarium with other Mbuna species and arranging the rocks in a manner to make "territories" will also help ease aggression.

Provide a deep sandy bed and lots of caves and rocks for them to explore and to hide in. This is especially important when the male is abusing the females. Success is dependent on the aquarists willingness to do frequent water changes, have sufficient hiding places, and provide appropriate tank mates.

Habitat: Distribution / Background

The Pseudotropheus Barlowi or Golden Fuscoides Maylandia barlowi was described by Mckaye and Stauffer in 1986. They are found in Lake Malawi, Africa at the Marleri Islands, Mbenji Island, Thumbi West Island at Cape Maclear, Mazinzi Reef, Chidunga Rocks or Chipoka, Nkhundzi and the Eccles Reef. This species is listed on the IUCN Red List as Least Concern (LC). Although it is endemic to Lake Malawi it is widespread in the southern part of the lake with no known major recognized threats at present.

The genus Pseudotropheus was formerly used quite broadly for the large variety of Mbuna species in Lake Malawi. Recent revisions have split the genus Pseudotropheus into three sub-genera: Pseudotropheus Pseudotropheus, Pseudotropheus Tropheops, and Pseudotropheus Maylandia. These then became recognized as their own genera of Pseudotropheus, Tropheops, and Maylandia. There is some debate on the naming of this last genus, so some of these fish may be found described as either Metriaclima or Maylandia.
Other common names this fish is known by are Pseudotropheus 'Zebra Fusco', Pseudotropheus Fuscoides, Pseudotropheus Fuscus, Metriaclima barlowi and Pseudotropheus Barlowi (now considered invalid scientific names but often still used in the hobby), and of course Mbuna.
They inhabit rocky areas in large groups. They enjoy depths of around 32 feet (10 m) in areas of sediment-rich, intermediate habitats of rocky areas and sandy spots between rocks. Males are territorial and will stay close to the rocks to protect a pit dug in the sand beneath a rock that he will use as a nest. Males primarily pick at algae for food which may contain Aufwuchs. Aufwuchs refers to tough stringy algae that is attached to rocks. "Loose" Aufwuchs can contain insect larvae, nymphs, crustaceans, snails, mites and zooplankton. Females are usually found higher up in the water column feeding on plankton.
  • Scientific Name: Maylandia barlowi
  • Social Grouping: Groups - They are found in rocky areas in large groups.
  • IUCN Red List: LC - Least Concern
Description

The Pseudotropheus Barlowi has the typical elongated, muscular Mbuna cichlid body. In nature they typically reach about 4 inches (10 cm) in length, but are often larger in the home aquarium, attaining lengths up to almost 5 inches (12.5 cm). This cichlid can live up to 10 years with proper care.
Their coloring is dependant on location, but in general the males are all a golden yellow with the anal fin being light blue to blue and having one yellow egg spot. Juveniles and females are brown. For the males, here are some differences according to location:
  • Maylandia barlowi "Chidunga"
    This variety has has a blue dorsal and anal fin. The tail fin is yellow with back part of the tail fin having blue as well.
  • Maylandia barlowi "Luwala"
    This variety has a blue anal fin and the tail fin is yellow with the back part of it being blue..
  • Maylandia barlowi "Maleri" and Maylandia barlowi "Mbenji"
    These varieties have a light blue anal and dorsal fin that has a yellow edging along the top. The tail fin is all yellow..
  • Maylandia barlowi "Nakantenga"
    This variety has has a blue anal fin, and a mix of light blue and yellow in the dorsal along a darker tail fin.
All cichlids share a common feature that some saltwater fish such as wrasses and parrotfish have. That is a well-developed pharyngeal set of teeth that are in the throat, along with their regular teeth. Cichlids have spiny rays in the back parts of the anal, dorsal, pectoral, and pelvic fins to help discourage predators. The front part of these fins are soft and perfect for precise positions and effortless movements in the water as opposed to fast swimming.
Cichlids have one nostril on each side while other fish have 2 sets. To sense "smells" in the water, they suck water in and expel the water right back out after being "sampled" for a short or longer time, depending on how much the cichlid needs to "smell" the water. This feature is shared by saltwater damselfish and cichlids are thought to be closely related.
  • Size of fish - inches: 4.9 inches (12.50 cm) - In the wild Maylandia barlowi is recorded at a maximum length of 3.94" (10 cm), but in the aquarium they can attain lengths up to 4.92" (12.5 cm).
  • Lifespan: 10 years - This cichlid can have a lifespan of up to 10 years with proper care.
Fish Keeping Difficulty

This is a good fish for both the intermediate and experienced cichlid keeper. It is an aggressive cichlid, and not a community tank specimen. It cannot kept with fish other than cichlids. The aquarists must be willing to do frequent water changes and provide appropriate tank mates. It is susceptible to Malawi bloat as well as the typical diseases that effect all freshwater fish if the tank is not maintained. In the proper setup it will easily adapt to prepared foods, breed readily, and the juveniles are easy to raise as well.
  • Aquarium Hardiness: Moderately hardy
  • Aquarist Experience Level: Intermediate
Foods and Feeding
The Pseudotropheus Barlowi is an omnivore. In the wild the feed on algae but also ingest plankton as well as aufwuchs, which contain tiny bentic organisma including crustaceans, invertbrates and some zooplankton. In the aquarium they can be fed a good quality cichlid flake or pellet along with spirulina. At times they can be fed mysis and cyclopeeze. They need vegetable matter, so having algae growing in the tank is one great way to supplement their diet.
It is always better to feed them small amounts several times a day instead of one large feeding. This keeps the water quality higher for a longer period of time. Of course, all fish benefit from added vitamins and supplements to their foods. It would not be wise to house this fish with other genus of cichlids that eat beef heart or other mammal meat, as these foods will cause intestinal infections and death in these fish.
  • Diet Type: Omnivore
  • Flake Food: Yes
  • Tablet Pellet: Yes
  • Live foods (fishes, shrimps, worms): Some of Diet
  • Vegetable Food: Some of Diet
  • Meaty Food: Some of Diet
  • Feeding Frequency: Daily - Offer several small feedings a day, what they can eat in about 3 minutes or less, rather than a single large feeding.
Aquarium Care
Malawi Cichlids will deteriorate under poor water conditions. Along with an established filtration system, a water change of 25% or more a week, depending on the bio load, is needed for their health. Malawi bloat is a typical disease especially if their dietary needs are not met with quality foods. It is caused by too much protein matter.
  • Water Changes: Weekly - Water changes of 25% or more each week are suggested, depending on the bio load.
Aquarium Setup
The streams that flow into Lake Malawi have a high mineral content. This along with evaporation has resulted in alkaline water that is highly mineralized. Lake Malawi is known for its clarity and stability as far as pH and other water chemistries. It is easy to see why it is important to watch tank parameters with all Lake Malawi fish.
Rift lake cichlids need hard alkaline water but are not found in brackish waters. Salt is sometimes used as a buffering agent to increase the water's carbonate hardness. This cichlid has some salt tolerance so can be kept in slightly brackish water conditions. However it not suited to a full brackish water tank. It can tolerate a salinity that is about 10% of a normal saltwater tank, a specific gravity of less than 1.0002.
A 40 gallon tank will work for a single fish, but a 5' tank of 125 gallons or more will be needed to keep more than one or a mixed Mbuna tank. They do fine in either freshwater or brackish freshwater but need good water movement along with very strong and efficient filtration. Provide a deep sand bed which will allow them to dig under the rocks to make a tunnel for breeding. A sand used for salt water tanks can help keep the pH up. Keeping a higher pH however, means that ammonia is more lethal, so regular water changes are a must for these fish.
They need lots of caves and rocks for them to explore and to hide in, especially when the male is abusing the females. Arranging the rocks in a manner to make "territories" will help ease aggression.. Some open space is appreciated as well.
  • Minimum Tank Size: 40 gal (151 L) - A minimum of 40 gallons is the suggested for a single fish, but to keep more than one or a mixed Mbuna tank provide a 5' tank of 125 gallons or more.
  • Suitable for Nano Tank: No
  • Substrate Type: Sand
  • Lighting Needs: Moderate - normal lighting
  • Temperature: 75.0 to 79.0° F (23.9 to 26.1° C)
  • Range ph: 7.4-8.5
  • Hardness Range: 12 - 16 dGH
  • Brackish: Sometimes - Salt is not found in their natural environment, but they do have a slight tolerance, keep levels below 10% - a specific gravity of less than 1.0002.
  • Water Movement: Moderate
  • Water Region: Middle - These fish will swim in the middle and bottom areas of the aquarium.
Social Behaviors

This zebra-type Mbuna is aggressive and is not considered to be a community fish. In fact, it should only be housed with other aggressive Mbunas. Keep them in a community Mbuna designed tank with lots of rock structures. Do not house them with similarly colored species that are the same size and shape.
This cichlid needs be be grouped with one male and at least 3 or more females. They are very aggressive toward the females and will kill any rival males in the tank. Keeping them in a large aquarium with other non-similar Mbuna species will help ease aggression.
  • Temperament: Aggressive - They should only be house with other aggressive Mbunas.
  • Compatible with:
    • Same species - conspecifics: Yes - They are best kept as one male with 3 or more females. They are very aggressive toward the females and will kill any other males in the tank.
    • Peaceful fish (): Threat
    • Semi-Aggressive (): Monitor
    • Aggressive (): Safe
    • Large Semi-Aggressive (): Threat
    • Large Aggressive, Predatory (): Threat
    • Slow Swimmers & Eaters (): Threat
    • Shrimps, Crabs, Snails: Threat - is aggressive
    • Plants: Threat
Sex: Sexual differences

  Male Golden Fuscoides are yellow and females are brown.


Breeding / Reproduction

The Pseudotropheus Barlowi has been bred in captivity and is a mouthbrooder. The male will dig out a tunnel under a rock in the sand. Females will enter the male's tunnel to spawn. The female will lay between 20 to 40 eggs and then immediately take them into her mouth. The male will then flare out his anal fin which has an 'egg spot' patterning. The female mistakes this patterning for her own eggs and tries to take them in her mouth as well. This stimulates the male to discharge sperm (milt cloud) and the female inhales the cloud of 'milt', thus fertilizing the eggs in her mouth.
In 7 days at about 80° F, the eggs hatch and the fry are free swimming in another 2 weeks. The female will protect the fry in her mouth for 3 to 4 weeks. Feed the fry crushed flake, Cyclopeeze and freshly hatched artemia. See the description of how cichlids breed in Breeding Freshwater Fish: Cichlids.
  • Ease of Breeding: Easy
Fish Diseases

Malawi bloat is a typical disease for the Golden Fuscoides cichlid, especially if their dietary needs are not met with quality foods. They are susceptible to typical fish ailments, especially if water is stale and of poor quality and oxygenation. One common problem is Ich. It can be treated with the elevation of the tank temperature to 86° F (30° C) for 3 days. If that does not cure the Ich, then the fish needs to be treated with copper (remove any water conditioners). Several copper based fish medications are available for Ich. Copper use must be kept within the proper levels, so be sure to follow the manufacturers suggestions. A copper test also can be used to keep the proper levels. You can also combine increasing the temperature with an Ich medication treatment.
As with most fish they are susceptible to skin flukes and other parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.), fungal infections, and bacterial infections. It is recommended to read up on the common tank diseases. Knowing the signs and catching and treating them early makes a huge difference. For information about freshwater fish diseases and illnesses


Credits :

http://www.cichlid-forum.com/profiles/category.php?cat=2

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/PseudotropheusBarlowi.php

http://www.riftlakes.com/cichlids/metriaclima_barlowi_e.html

http://peabody.research.yale.edu//CICHLID/LL/lombardoi_akio_kaesermann.jpg



Gilded catfish picture



These is a new type of a hybrid catfish , That s very cool fish !!!

Cute Short Body Crap Pictures



  He look so cute ^ _ ^ , I love short body crap very much.

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My Aquarium E-Book for sale : Cockatoo dwarf cichlid : Care and Breeding

   This is the short article about raising and fertilizing one of the most popular dwarf 
cichlid. That is cacatuoi dwarf cichlid. This article is appropriate for the amateur and 
anyone who wants to learn about this fish before getting start. How we raise them until 
they will have the next generation 
                                                             ^ _ ^


วันอังคารที่ 29 ตุลาคม พ.ศ. 2556

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Cute Comet Goldfish Pictures


 They Look so cute ^ _ ^ and their price is only 1 dollar US.

 



Fish Data : Kenyi cichlid - Pseudotropheus lombardoi



Common Name
Kenyi cichlid
 
Scientific Name Of The Species
Pseudotropheus lombardoi

  • Size of the fish in home aquariums (min-max):
    13 - 16 cm ( 5.12" - 6.3")
  • pH of water for Kenyi cichlid has to be between:
    7.5 - 8.9
  • Water hardness (dGH):
    12 - 25 °N
  • Recommended water temperature for Kenyi cichlid:
    23 - 27 °C ( 73.4 - 80.6 °F ) \ 
  •    The Kenyi Cichlid Maylandia lombardoi (previously Pseudotropheus lombardoi) is a beautiful zebra-barred African cichlid. It is a moderately large, aggressive Mbuna from Lake Malawi. In the wild it will reach up to 5 inches (12.7 cm) in length, but can get even larger in the aquarium.

       This fish belongs to a group of cichlids called Mbunas. There are 13 genera full of very active and aggressive personalities of Mbuna cichlids. The name Mbuna comes from the Tonga people of Malawi and means "rockfish" or "rock-dwelling". This name aptly describes the environment these fish live in as opposed to being open water swimmers like the Utaka cichlids and other "haps". Other common names this fish is known by are Lombardoi Cichlid, Kennyi Cichlid, Blue Kenyi Cichlid, Golden Zebra Cichlid, Kenyii, Metriaclima lombardoi (now considered an invalid scientific name), Pseudotropheus lilancinius (an incorrect scientific name but one that has historically been used in the hobby), and of course Mbuna.

       The cichlid is unique among its kind because of its colors.The male and female look like two different species with the male having a bright orange base with faded dark bars and the female having a rich sky blue base with faded dark barring. These base colors are exactly the reverse of what is typically found in other Mbuna cichlids. Most Mbuna species have blue males and females that are yellowish.

        Being one of the most pugnacious and aggressive of the Mbunas, this is a fish for the intermediate and experienced cichlid keeper. It is very belligerent, even the two inch juveniles have the desire and power to devastate smaller fish, such as feeder guppies. It is not a fish for a community tank but it can easily hold its own in a larger aquarium of mixed African Mbunas. Wild caught specimens are even more aggressive than captive raised fish.

       The Kenyi easily adapts to prepared foods and will eat pretty much anything. They will even eat the algae in the tank so you do not need to buy a Plecostomus for algae control. They are best kept in a species specific tank unless they are kept with large Mbunas. In a large species tank, keep a group of one male and several females and provide lots of hiding places.

       The Kenyi Cichlid has the typical elongated, muscular Mbuna cichlid body, though the males seem to be a tad deeper than other Mbunas. In nature they will reach up to about 5" (12.7 cm) in length, and are sometimes larger in the home aquarium. This cichlid can live up to 10 years with proper care.
    The color differences between the male and female are opposite that found on most Mbuna species. The male Kenyi is a golden yellow with faint vertical bars, and has egg spots on the anal fin along with a lighter colored stomach area. The females are a purple to blue color with the same faint bars and lighter stomach area. Juveniles are similar to females, only smaller. All stages have faded vertical bars that have hints of color where they meet the dorsal fin.

       All cichlids share a common feature that some saltwater fish such as wrasses and parrotfish have. That is a well-developed pharyngeal set of teeth that are in the throat, along with their regular teeth. Cichlids have spiny rays in the back parts of the anal, dorsal, pectoral, and pelvic fins to help discourage predators. The front part of these fins are soft and perfect for precise positions and effortless movements in the water as opposed to fast swimming.

       Cichlids have one nostril on each side while other fish have 2 sets. To sense "smells" in the water, they suck water in and expel the water right back out after being "sampled" for a short or longer time, depending on how much the cichlid needs to "smell" the water. This feature is shared by saltwater damselfish and cichlids are thought to be closely related.

    Foods and Feeding
     
        The Kenyi Cichlid is an omnivore that feeds primarily on algae in the wild, but also ingest plankton as well as aufwuchs, which contain tiny bentic organisma including crustaceans, invertbrates and some zooplankton. In the aquarium they will accept frozen or live brine shrimp, mysis, high quality flake, pellets, spirulina, and other preparations for omnivore cichlids. They also enjoy bloodworms, live feeder guppies, and daphnia. Their diet can also be supplemented with vegetable foods such as spinach, zucchini, and peas.
    It is always better to feed them small amounts several times a day instead of one large feeding. This keeps the water quality higher for a longer period of time. Of course, all fish benefit from added vitamins and supplements to their foods.

  • Diet Type: Omnivore
  • Flake Food: Yes
  • Tablet Pellet: Yes
  • Live foods (fishes, shrimps, worms): Some of Diet
  • Vegetable Food: Half of Diet
  • Meaty Food: Some of Diet
  • Feeding Frequency: Daily - Offer several small feedings a day, what they can eat in about 3 minutes or less, rather than a single large feeding.
Aquarium Care

    Malawi Cichlids will deteriorate under poor water conditions. Malawi bloat is a typical disease especially if their dietary needs are not met with quality foods. It is caused by too much protein matter.  As these are messy fish, do water changes of 10% to 20% a week depending on the bio load. If overstocking is used as a form of aggression reduction, care should be taken to do several partial water changes a week.
  • Water Changes: Weekly - Water changes of 10-20% weekly are suggested, depending on the bio load. If tank is overstocked than several partial changes a week are recommended.
Aquarium Setup

    The streams that flow into Lake Malawi have a high mineral content. This along with evaporation has resulted in alkaline water that is highly mineralized. Lake Malawi is known for its clarity and stability as far as pH and other water chemistries. It is easy to see why it is important to watch tank parameters with all Lake Malawi fish.

   Rift lake cichlids need hard alkaline water but are not found in brackish waters. Salt is sometimes used as a buffering agent to increase the water's carbonate hardness. This cichlid has some salt tolerance so can be kept in slightly brackish water conditions. However it not suited to a full brackish water tank. It can tolerate a salinity that is about 10% of a normal saltwater tank, a specific gravity of less than 1.0002.

   A minimum of 50 gallons is recommended for for a male and several females. An even larger tank would be needed if mixing them with other Mbuna. They do fine in either freshwater or brackish freshwater but need good water movement along with very strong and efficient filtration. Gravel makes a good substate and the addition of crushed coral can help keep the pH up. A very slow acclimation to different pH levels can sometimes be achieved. Crushed coral or aragonite sands do tend to dissolves easier than salts. Keeping a higher pH however, means that ammonia is more lethal, so regular water changes are a must for these fish.
The Kenyi Cichlid needs a lot of rock work for shelter and territories. Some open space is appreciated as well. Like other Mbunas, they may dig so make sure the rocks sit on the bottom of the aquarium not on the substrate. Arranging the rocks in a manner to make "territories" will help ease aggression.
  • Minimum Tank Size: 50 gal (189 L) - A minimum of 50 gallons is the suggested for one male and several females, but a larger tank is needed for a mixed group of Mbunas.
  • Suitable for Nano Tank: No
  • Substrate Type: Any
  • Lighting Needs: Moderate - normal lighting
  • Temperature: 76.0 to 82.0° F (24.4 to 27.8° C)
  • Range ph: 7.8-8.6
  • Hardness Range: 10 - 15 dGH
  • Brackish: Sometimes - Salt is not found in their natural environment, but they do have a slight tolerance, keep levels below 10% - a specific gravity of less than 1.0002.
  • Water Movement: Moderate
  • Water Region: Middle - These fish will swim in the middle and bottom areas of the aquarium.
   Social Behaviors

The Kenyi Cichlid is not considered to be a community fish. They are best kept in groups of one male and several females in a large tank. Males will attack and kill any other males of the same species in the tank. They are best kept in species specific tank. They can also be kept in a very large aquarium with other large Mbunas, just make sure to provide lots of hiding places. Do not put this fish with peaceful cichlids.
  • Temperament: Aggressive
  • Compatible with:
    • Same species - conspecifics: Yes - They can be kept in groups of 1 male with several females, but 2 males will fight, usually to the death unless they are in a very large tank with plenty of territories.
    • Peaceful fish (): Threat
    • Semi-Aggressive (): Monitor
    • Aggressive (): Safe
    • Large Semi-Aggressive (): Threat
    • Large Aggressive, Predatory (): Threat
    • Slow Swimmers & Eaters (): Threat
    • Shrimps, Crabs, Snails: Threat - is aggressive
    • Plants: Monitor
  • Sexing

    Both male and female Kenyi Cichlids are pale blue with dark bands when they are juveniles.  Adult males will become a bright yellow with spots on their anal fins.  Adult females are a brilliant blue, sometimes with black bands.
    These fish can also have some variations in color depending on social circumstances in the aquarium.  Sub-dominant adult males may keep their juvenile blue colors when multiple males are kept together.  Mouthbrooding adult females may exhibit signifigant yellow coloring soon after spawning.

    Breeding

       Kenyi Cichlids should be spawned in a large breeding tank.  A sandy substrate with many large, flat rocks should be provided.  Place one male and at least three females in the tank and feed them vigorously with green vegetables to induce spawning.  Excellent pH and water quality will be required.

       The males will initiate spawning by dancing around in front of the female. If she is ready to spawn, she will follow him to a bed that he has previously dug in the substrate.

       Once the breeding pair have reached the spawning bed, the female will lay 10-20 eggs in it. She then promptly scoops the eggs into her mouth. While she is doing this, the male will rub the spotted area near his anal fin in front of her mouth. These spots trick the female into thinking they are eggs. When she goes to gather the spots in her mouth, the male fertilizes the eggs that she has already scooped up. This behavior will be repeated several times during the spawning.

       The eggs hatch in a few days, and the female protects the fry by keeping them in her mouth for about a month. The fry will leave her mouth to feed on baby brine shrimp and crushed flake. The female will stay close to the fry and allow them to swim into her mouth again if they feel threatened. Males have no part in the protection of the fry after spawning concludes.
    When the eggs have hatched, take care to not remove the female from the aquarium where her fry were spawned. She may then become stressed and eat the fry.


    Credits :

    http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/KenyiCichlid.php

    http://www.tropical-fish-friends.com/kenyi-cichlid.html

    http://www.aquariumdomain.com/viewFreshwaterAfricanCichlid.php?id=110#
     

วันจันทร์ที่ 21 ตุลาคม พ.ศ. 2556

Fish Data : Demanson's Cichlid


http://www.african-cichlid.com/Demasoni7916.jpg

 The Demasoni Cichlid, Pseudotropheus demasoni, is a relatively rare cichlid, which originates from a specific rocky point called Pombo Rocks, within the waters of Lake Malawi located in Tanzania, Africa. The male of this species has dark blue or black vertical stripes with alternating lighter stripes of light blue to white. The male Demasoni Cichlid also displays the typical spots on the anal fin, and is considerably larger than the female. The female of this species is not as brilliantly colored, and lacks the spots on the anal fin.

 The Demasoni Cichlid is a relatively new addition to the aquarium hobby, as it was introduced into the hobby trade around the mid 1990's. Its bright coloration, sharp lines of color contrast and relatively peaceful demenior made it a very popular species almost overnight. Demasoni Cichlids are a dwarf species that typically grow to around 5", which makes them suitable for smaller African Cichlid aquariums of 55 gallons or more. In its natural habitat, the Demasoni Cichlid is found in large schools that swim near and amongst rocky areas that provide them protection from larger species and plenty of plants and algae on which to graze. In the home aquarium, the Demasoni Cichlid is an ideal specimen that will aggressively swim about rock formations in their unique quick elusive manner that makes them a joy to watch.

   This is a dwarf Mbuna that only reaches about 2 1/2 to 3 inches (6.4 to 7.6 cm) in length. It is a pretty cichlid that has a very inquisitive nature with lots of personality and spunk. It is an interesting fish to watch as it follows the contours of the rocks, swimming along at odd angles to the point of being upside down. The body pattern consists of crisp alternating stripes that are dark blue (almost black) and light blue. On the dorsal fin the stripes angle back with the lighter ones being thinner than the dark ones. The upper and lower fins, as well as the tail fin, are edge in a light blue.

    The Demanson's Cichlid is sometimes confused with the Pseudotropheus minutus, being similar in size and color. Differences are that on the P. minutus, the lines stop before the tail fin and are less distinct. Also the Demanson's Cichlid males have an egg spot.

   This is zebra-type cichlid is a member of a group called Mbunas. There are 13 genera full of very active and aggressive personalities of Mbuna cichlids. The name Mbuna comes from the Tonga people of Malawi and means "rockfish" or "rock-dwelling". This name aptly describes the environment these fish live in as opposed to being open water swimmers like the Utaka cichlids and other "haps".
This is a great fish for both the intermediate and experienced cichlid keeper. Although its a lively little cichlid, it is moderate to hard to care for and is very aggressive. This is not a community tank specimen to be housed with fish other than cichlids. Because of its small size, it can be housed in a bit smaller tank than what is typical for Mbuna, but of course bigger is better.

   No matter what size the aquarium is they should to be kept in a group of twelve or more to help disperse aggressive behavior. This helps keeps the dominant male from exhausting females and others as a result of constant chasing, by spreading the "love" out. Make sure the aquarium has ample rock formations that provide lots of hiding places, as this will also help ward off brutal aggression between them. Piles of rocks can be arranged to create multiple caves and passageways.
They can also be kept in a large aquarium of mixed Mbuna species, but again there must be plenty of hiding places. Success is dependent on the aquarists willingness to do frequent water changes, have sufficient numbers and hiding places, and provide appropriate tank mates. The Mbuna's have been bred in captivity and with all the different hybrids that have been formed, there is no way to tell exactly what you are getting unless it is from a reputable dealer. Try and keep the different species blood lines pure.

  
    The Demanson's Cichlid is an omnivore that needs mainly herbivorous foods. Their diet should consist of vegetable matter. An all purpose, high quality cichlid formula can be used as a basic diet. Including vegetable supplements to their diet will help with overall health. This food has fiber which keeps their intestinal tract disease free.

   It is always better to feed them small amounts several times a day instead of one large feeding. This keeps the water quality higher for a longer period of time. Of course, all fish benefit from added vitamins and supplements to their foods. It would not be wise to house this fish with other genus of cichlids that eat beef heart or other mammal meat, as these foods will cause intestinal infections and death.

 Aquarium Setup

   The streams that flow into Lake Malawi have a high mineral content. This along with evaporation has resulted in alkaline water that is highly mineralized. Lake Malawi is known for its clarity and stability as far as pH and other water chemistries. It is easy to see why it is important to watch tank parameters with all Lake Malawi fish.

   Rift lake cichlids need hard alkaline water but are not found in brackish waters. Salt is sometimes used as a buffering agent to increase the water's carbonate hardness. This cichlid has some salt tolerance so can be kept in slightly brackish water conditions. However it not suited to a full brackish water tank. It can tolerate a salinity that is about 10% of a normal saltwater tank, a specific gravity of less than 1.0002.

    A 40 gallon tank will work for a single fish, but 100 gallons or more will be needed for a group or a mixed mbuna tank. The Demanson's Cichlid should always be house in numbers of 12 or more to help alleviate extreme aggression by the dominant male towards females or others. They do fine in either freshwater or brackish freshwater but need good water movement along with very strong and efficient filtration.

   Sand is the preferred substrate, but some aquarists have also used crushed coral or a mix of gravel and crushed coral. A substrate of crushed coral or sand used for salt water tanks can help keep the pH up. They also tend to dissolves easier than salts. Keeping a higher pH however, means that ammonia is more lethal, so regular water changes are a must for these fish.
They need caves and rocks to explore as they are very curious little fish. Having several niches will help them have their own territory, which is also better for the subdominant females and males. Moving rocks around every so often may also help with an overly aggressive fish.
  • Minimum Tank Size: 40 gal (151 L) - A minimum of 40 gallons for a single fish, with 100 gallons or more for a group.
  • Suitable for Nano Tank: No
  • Substrate Type: Sand/Gravel Mix
  • Lighting Needs: Moderate - normal lighting
  • Temperature: 75.0 to 82.0° F (23.9 to 27.8° C)
  • Range ph: 7.6-8.6
  • Hardness Range: 10 - 18 dGH
  • Brackish: Sometimes - Salt is not found in their natural environment, but they do have a slight tolerance, keep levels below 10% - a specific gravity of less than 1.0002.
  • Water Movement: Moderate
  • Water Region: Middle - These fish will swim in the middle areas of the aquarium.
Social Behaviors

   The Demanson's Cichlid is aggressive and is not considered to be a community fish. In fact, it should only be housed with other aggressive Mbunas. Only keep them in a community Mbuna designed tank with lots of rock structures. They are very territorial, even a 1/2 inch male will chase away a medium size fish from his territory.

    Do not house them with ANY fish that has the same hue or other fish that have bars, including a yellow with dark bars. Do not house with similarly colored species, especially species like the Dogtooth Cichlid Cynotilapia afra or Kenyi Cichlid Maylandia lombardoi. You can house them with a yellow Mbuna that does not have bars and they will be fine. Some examples of appropriate tank mates are a yellow species of Electric Yellow Labidochromis caeruleus, the Red Zebra Maylandia estherae, and the Cobalt Zebra Maylandia callainos.
This fish is best kept in a group of 12 or more. The male to female ratio can vary, but there should be more than one male. You may need to experiment with your fish's temperament to determine how many males you can keep. In the wild they live in large groups, but the reason for the large grouping in a captive environment is that this larger number will prevent the dominant male from focusing his aggression on just a few fish, thus leading to their death. With a large number, the subdominant females and males are 'lost in the crowd'. If the numbers are too low, such as 5 or 6, a male will systematically kill the others until he is alone. There will be a dominant male in the group, and once he has established himself, the other Demanson's Cichlids will avoid fighting with him. If you cannot provide the needed room, it is best to leave this one at the store.
  • Temperament: Aggressive - Should only be housed with other aggressive Mbunas.
  • Compatible with:
    • Same species - conspecifics: Yes - They are best kept in a group of 12 or more. The male to female ratio can vary, but there should be more than one male.
    • Peaceful fish (): Threat
    • Semi-Aggressive (): Monitor
    • Aggressive (): Safe
    • Large Semi-Aggressive (): Threat
    • Large Aggressive, Predatory (): Threat
    • Slow Swimmers & Eaters (): Threat
    • Shrimps, Crabs, Snails: Threat - is aggressive
    • Plants: Monitor
Sex: Sexual differences 

   For the first couple of months juveniles of both sexes are the same size and shape. This makes sexing next to impossible unless you vent them. As they get older, the males will develop elongated ventral fins and an egg spot.

Breeding / Reproduction

   The Demanson's Cichlid has been bred in captivity. This cichlid is a mouthbrooder that needs to be in numbers of 12 or more. At one inch a female will start to brood but the number of fry will be low. Once the dominant male decides to breed, he will become severely aggressive and pummel to death any other male in the tank if the tank is too small, or if there is a lack of hiding places for the other fish. Like other mbunas the males coloring will change. He will shake and circle the female, moving her to a flat rock in his territory, then the breeding begins.

   The female will lay between 5 - 15 eggs and then immediately takes them into her mouth. The male will then flare out his anal fin which has an 'egg spot' patterning. The female mistakes the patterning for her own eggs and tries to take them in her mouth as well. This stimulates the male to discharge sperm (milt cloud) and the female inhales the cloud of 'milt', thus fertilizing the eggs in her mouth. In seven days, at about 80° F, the eggs hatch. The fry are free swimming in another two weeks.
Feed the fry crushed flake, Cyclopeeze and freshly hatched artemia. Even the fry are aggressive and will pick on each other. Older siblings don't think twice about eating the newborns if they can fit them in their mouth. See the description of how cichlids breed in Breeding Freshwater Fish: Cichlids.
  • Ease of Breeding: Easy
   Fish Diseases

  Malawi bloat is a typical disease for the Demanson's Cichlid, especially if their dietary needs are not met with quality foods. They are susceptible to typical fish ailments, especially if water is stale and of poor quality and oxygenation. One common problem is Ich. It can be treated with the elevation of the tank temperature to 86° F (30° C) for 3 days. If that does not cure the Ich, then the fish needs to be treated with copper (remove any water conditioners). Several copper based fish medications are available for Ich. Copper use must be kept within the proper levels, so be sure to follow the manufacturers suggestions. A copper test also can be used to keep the proper levels. You can also combine increasing the temperature with an Ich medication treatment.

   As with most fish they are susceptible to skin flukes and other parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.), fungal infections, and bacterial infections. It is recommended to read up on the common tank diseases. Knowing the signs and catching and treating them early makes a huge difference


Credits :

http://www.liveaquaria.com/product/prod_display.cfm?c=830+831+1663&pcatid=1663

www.aquaticcommunity.com/fish/demasoni.php

http://www.aquariumdomain.com/viewFreshwaterAfricanCichlid.php?id=39

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/DemansonsCichlid.php

http://www.african-cichlid.com/Demasoni7916.jpg

วันอาทิตย์ที่ 20 ตุลาคม พ.ศ. 2556

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Fish Data : Bubble Bee Cichlid


overview
 
   The Bumblebee Cichlid, also known as the Hornet Cichlid, or Chameleon Cichlid comes from deepwater caves in Lake Malawi, Africa. The coloration of the Bumblebee is a golden yellow background with vertical brown to black bars running the length of its body.

   The Bumblebee will do best in a cichlid community aquarium. Provide numerous rocks and caves and a sandy bottom with plenty of places to set up territories. A laterite-based substrate is ideal for this system as it will help to maintain the necessary high pH and alkalinity.

    The Bumblebee Mouthbrooder Pseudotropheus crabro is an attractive fish has definitely been named for its appearance. As a juvenile it has a striped yellow and black 'bumblebee' patterning. So today its commonly called the Bumblebee Mouthbrooder or Bumblebee Cichlid, but it is also known as the Hornet Cichlid.
The name 'hornet' as well as its scientific species name 'crabo' were derived from the European Hornet Vespa crabro, as both of these species are large sized and have a similar color patterning. Even before these two names though, and before it was scientifically described, it was called Pseudotropheus "chameleo" for its chameleon-like color changing ability.

    This cichlid tends to change colors very rapidly, going from an almost totally black fish to a yellowish fish with bold black bars. They use this ability in their "pseudo-symbiotic" relationship with a large cave-dwelling catfish, the Kampango Bagrus meridionalis. In its gold and black barred coloring, the cichlid advertises its cleaning services and is safely allowed to pick parasites from the skin of the catfish. But on a darker note, when these catfish spawn the Bumblebee will turn almost black. Like a thief in the night, they sneakily eat the spawning catfish eggs. If it is seen, it will quickly revert back to the yellow and black color and resume its cleaning duties.

    The fish is a member of a group of cichlids called Mbunas. There are 12 genera full of very active and aggressive personalities. The name Mbuna comes from the Tonga people of Malawi and means "rockfish" or "rock-dwelling". This name aptly describes the environment these fish live in as opposed to being open water swimmers like the Utaka cichlids and other "haps".



    Bumblebee Cichlid's or Crabro Cichlids originate from Lake Malawi, where they are found in deeper waters live in caves or near large rocky formations. The Bumblebee Cichlid shares these caves with the Kampango Catfish, which is a large aggressive species. The two species have a partial symbiotic relationship in that the Bumblebee Cichlid will eat parasites off of the Kampango Catfish and in return the Kampango will not eat the Bumblebee Cichlid. In the dark watery caves, the Kampango Catfish uses the lighter gold and brown/black barred pattern of the Bumblebee Cichlid to identify it and not treat it as prey. However, the Bumblebee Cichlid can rapidly change their coloration to a very dark almost black coloration that they use to mimic the appearance of the Kampango in order to feed on their eggs during breeding season. After feeding on the Kampango eggs, the Bumblebee Cichlid is quick to adjust it's coloration and pattern back to the gold and brown striped pattern so they can remain safe inside the cave with the larger catfish. Bumblebee Cichlids must be aggressive in the wild in order to coexist in close quarters with other larger predators and steal eggs while doing it, so it is important to remember that they will also be very aggressive within the aquarium environment as well. The Bumblebee Cichlid makes a great addition to aggressive African Cichlid aquariums and larger community African Cichlid aquariums provided that the habitat is properly designed and large enough to provide the necessary territories for the fish being housed.

   When considering a Bumblebee Cichlid for your African Cichlid aquarium, the most important aspect to consider is the aggressiveness of the species. They are easy to care for and do not have many specific needs when kept within an aquarium, but they are quite aggressive and will need to be housed with proper tank mates in a reasonably sized aquarium. It is critical to consider this when choosing tank mates as the Bumblebee Cichlid will quickly dominate less aggressive species, which could very well mean killing them. The best ways to mitigate this aggression is to keep them with other larger aggressive species, create aqua-scaping that provides a large variety of territories with plenty of caves, house them in large aquariums that will allow them to establish territory without taking over the entire aquarium and lastly, keeping them with many other aggressive species so that aggression is spread out amongst many fish. Bumblebee's will appreciate an aquarium setup that has a sandy substrate and plenty of large rocky caves. Quality biological, mechanical and chemical filtration along with partial water changes are critical to maintaining high water quality levels that mimic the water conditions of the Bumblebee Cichlids native rift lake home.

    The omnivorous Bumblebee Cichlid is an aggressive feeder that in the wild scratches out an existence eating parasites, stealing and eating other fishes eggs and preying on a variety of meaty planktonic foods. When kept in an aquarium environment the Bumblebee will readily accept a large variety of meaty foods including: cichlid flake, pellet, sticks, frozen and freeze-dried foods, blood worms, tubifex worms and other similar meaty foods. Simply provide them some variety to their diet so that they receive balanced nutrition and the Bumblebee Cichlid will be more than satisfied with most any meaty fare. 

    Keep this cichlid in a group of one male to six or more females. Make sure to provide rock formations with multiple hiding places to ward off brutal aggression from the male. They can also be kept in a very large aquarium of mixed Mbuna with plenty of hiding places, but this cichlid male will be dominant. Success is dependent on the aquarists willingness to do frequent water changes, have sufficient numbers and hiding places, and provide appropriate tank mates.

Aquarium Setup


   The streams that flow into Lake Malawi have a high mineral content. This along with evaporation has resulted in alkaline water that is highly mineralized. Lake Malawi is known for its clarity and stability as far as pH and other water chemistries. It is easy to see why it is important to watch tank parameters with all Lake Malawi fish.

    Rift lake cichlids need hard alkaline water but are not found in brackish waters. Salt is sometimes used as a buffering agent to increase the water's carbonate hardness. This cichlid has some salt tolerance so can be kept in slightly brackish water conditions. However it not suited to a full brackish water tank. It can tolerate a salinity that is about 10% of a normal saltwater tank, a specific gravity of less than 1.0002.

    A 50 gallon tank will work for a single fish. A 100 gallons or more, and at least 5 feet in length, will be needed if housed with other compatible fish. The Bumblebee Cichlid will do fine in either freshwater or brackish freshwater but needs good water movement along with very strong and efficient filtration.
Provide a fine gravel or coarse substrate along with lots of rocks and bogwood with multiple hiding places for sub-dominant and brooding fish. The addition of crushed coral can help keep the pH up. A very slow acclimation to different pH levels can sometimes be achieved. Crushed coral or aragonite sands do tend to dissolves easier than salts. Keeping a higher pH however, means that ammonia is more lethal, so regular water changes are a must for these fish. Some open space is appreciated as well. Hardy fast growing plants, such as Giant Vallisneria or Cryptocoryne species can also be included.
  • Minimum Tank Size: 50 gal (189 L) - A single fish can be kept in a 50 gallon tank, but a group will need 100 gallons or more with a length of at least 5 feet.
  • Suitable for Nano Tank: No
  • Substrate Type: Any
  • Lighting Needs: Moderate - normal lighting
  • Temperature: 78.0 to 82.0° F (25.6 to 27.8° C)
  • Range ph: 8.0-14.0
  • Hardness Range: 10 - 18 dGH
  • Brackish: Sometimes - Salt is not found in their natural environment, but they do have a slight tolerance, keep levels below 10% - a specific gravity of less than 1.0002.
  • Water Movement: Moderate
  • Water Region: Middle - These fish will swim in the middle and bottom areas of the aquarium.

    For best results in spawning, the males should be kept with at least three females. The female will spawn on a flat rock and will take the unfertilized eggs into her mouth and will follow closely behind the male until he releases the sperm to fertilize the eggs. The female will tend to the eggs for approximately three weeks before releasing the fry. The fry can then be fed newly hatched brine shrimp, daphnia, or crushed flake food.

   The Bumblebee Cichlid should be fed foods rich in vegetable matter such as flake, pellet, and leafy seaweeds. Their diet should also be supplemented with meaty plankton-rich foods such as brine shrimp and bloodworms.




Credits :

http://www.liveaquaria.com/product/prod_display.cfm?c=830+831+2531&pcatid=2531

http://www.aquariumdomain.com/viewFreshwaterAfricanCichlid.php?id=97

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/BumblebeeMouthbrooder.php

http://badmanstropicalfish.com/species-gallery/species-images/photo_gallery_pics/TerenceB/Pseudotropheus_Crabo_Male_wikpedia.jpg