วันจันทร์ที่ 5 พฤศจิกายน พ.ศ. 2555

Fish Data : Jaguar Cichlid






Common name: Jaguar cichlid, guapote jaguar
Region:
Nicaragua
Size:
16-20 inches wild, 14-16 in captivity
Color:
silver with black spots
Water Chemistry:ph:7
(neutral)
Temperature:
75F
Aggression: very high
Compatibility: little, or no compatibility

General Info :

    This fish has its origins in Eastern Honduras, Lake Managua, Lake Nicaragua and Costa Rica. The common name ’Jaguar Cichlid’ comes from all the dark spots like on the jaguar cat.

    The scientific name for the Jaguar Cichlid is Parachromis managuensis and its native habitat is in the rivers and lakes of Nicaragua, Central America. Other common names for this fish are Guapote Cichlid, Managua Cichlid, Guapote Tigre, Spotted Guapote and Jaguar Guapote.

    In the wild, this fish is a top predator.  As juveniles they live in small ponds and lakes formed by the flooding of the rivers in the rainy season. As they grow to adults they move back into the rivers. They eat just about anything they can catch, even if the prey is bigger. They have been known to eat other cichlids, other fish species, piranha, and even birds. 

Tank Setup


    The minimum tank size for a Jaguar Cichlid should be at least 155 gallons because The Jaguar Cichlid can grow to at least 12 inch. The Tank must have a cover because this fish is a great jumper. The Tank should contain rocks and driftwood because the Jaguar Cichlid likes to hide and jump out at prey or food. A darker substrate should be used as it tends to help show off the great coloration of this fish.

    They prefer a neutral ph (around 7), and a temperature around 75 degrees Fahrenheit, but can stand higher or lower ph and temperature due to their natural ability to adapt to different conditions they experience in the wild. They can and will jump so the tank should be completely covered.

    This fish  require a good filtration system, due to the amount of waste they put out. You can minimize the waste by feeding dried foods. Despite their resilience, they should be kept at optimum ph, temperature, and water quality in order to maintain a healthy, happy, beautiful specimen. The tank should not have any plants or delicate decorations, as they will destroy them.

Water Region: Top, Middle, Bottom: The Jaguar Cichlid will swim in the middle and lower areas of the aquarium.

Acceptable Water Conditions:    Hardness: 10 -15° dH
   Ph: 7.0 - 8.7

   Temp: 75 - 82° F (24 -28° C), (82° F to breed)

Feeding :

    The Jaguar Cichlid is a carnivore, a predator that feeds on other smaller fish and large invertebrates in the wild. In the aquarium they will eagerly accept large live foods such as goldfish and other small fishes, crickets and other insects, earthworms, and tadpoles. Though live fishes are their main food they can be fed large chunk foods such as cut up fish and crayfish, and they may also accept large pieces of freeze dried and dry foods. Feed once a day, and some say that a one day a week fast is beneficial. This will keep the water quality higher over a longer time. All fish benefit from vitamins and supplements added to their foods.




Tank Mate:

   This fish is not a community fish. This fish is a predator that is territorial and aggressive, and even more aggressive when spawning. It needs to be kept with other large Central and South American cichlids, that are larger than they are. If breeding them do not house with plecostomus as these fish will eat the fry at night. Once they are ready to spawn, no other fish should be left in the tank.

   They can be kept singly or in pairs. They are aggressive toward those of the same species and if they are not raised as a pair putting in a female that is unfamiliar is a risk, especially if the male is larger.As with all larger cichlids, room is of the utmost importance to keep aggression low.

Sexual Differences:   

    The male Jaguar Cichlid is larger and seems to have more vertical broken bars when young. Once he is full grown, he will not have any bars at all. The female Jaguar Cichlid will have thinner vertical bars and a more pronounced dark broken horizontal bar.

Breeding/Reproduction:

    Breeding this fish can be tricky with some pairs of these fish so you may need some patience before you actually get a brood. As juveniles it is virtually impossible to sex this fish, males and females all look the same, as the fish mature and reach a size of 4-5 inches, the male will lose his dark stripes and will grow quicker than the female, his markings will turn to darker speckles and his background colour will take on a gold appearance.
    Breeder can use a separate breeding tank, during the breeding time the Jaguar Cichlid becomes very aggressive and can even attempt to attack its own owner if you decide to place your hand in the tank. The male will show some aggression towards the female so this should be watched carefully, if it becomes too intense it may be necessary to add a divider in the tank until the male calms down, and then try again.

    You can use sand for the substrate and add some flat rocks to act as potential spawning sites. The female will deposit her eggs on the chosen site after it has been cleaned, expect up to 500 eggs with each batch. The eggs

   The female will fan the eggs with oxygenated water and after 2-3 days the eggs should hatch.

    Must not attempt to feed the fry at this stage, they will feed from their yolk sacs for a few days and only once these have been consumed should the fry be fed.


    The Jaguar Cichlid fry will feed on commercial egglayer fry food initially or you can use hard boiled egg yolks, squeezed through muslin, once they grow slightly they will accept newly hatched brine shrimp or crushed flake.

    It is quite common for the parents to move the young around the tank, this is an inbuilt reaction from the Jaguar Cichlid hiding their young in the wild from predators. I have had the best success with breeding the Jaguar Cichlid when the tanks are lit naturally and no artificial light is added to distract them.

     Like all large cichlids, Jaguar Cichlids will uproot live and plastic plants in an aquarium. If you want to have any rooted plastic plant in your cichlid tank, glue gravel onto their bases to keep them from floating. If you use dark gravel, it will make your Jaguar cichlids darker. Darker gravels also brings out that purple sheen.

 Diseases  
   They are subject to infections as well as other diseases that ail all freshwater fish. One common problem is Ich. It can be treated with the elevation of the tank temperature to 86° F (30° C) for 3 days. If that does not cure the Ich, then the fish needs to be treated with copper (remove any water conditioners). Several copper based fish medications are available for Ich. Copper use must be kept within the proper levels, so be sure to follow the manufacturers suggestions. A copper test can be used to keep the proper levels. You can also combine increasing the temperature with an Ich medication treatment. Intestinal disease can be treated with metronidazol.



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