วันอังคารที่ 23 ตุลาคม พ.ศ. 2555

Fish Data : Flower Horn Cichlid



Common name:

Flower Horn Fish , Hua Luo Han


The history of the Flowerhorn cichlid

    The Flowerhorn chichlid is a result of hybridisation between different South American chichlids. The Flowerhorn was developed in Malaysia during the second half of the 1990s, and exactly which South American cichlids that was used and in which combinations is still a secret. This secrecy has of caused a lot of speculation and a number of more or less reasonable theories have been put forth. One of the more far-fetched theories suggests that the Flowerhorn cichlid was artificially created in a Malaysian genetics laboratory by combining genes from a Goldfish with genes from the Trimac cichlid (Amhilophous Trimaculatus). A more reasonable suggestion is that the Flowerhorn cichlid is the result of crossing many different types of South American cichlids with each other, and that different forms of Flowerhorn cichlids can steam from different South American cichlids. The most plausible ancestry is crossings between the Trimac cichlid and other South American cichlids such as Midas cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellum), Red Devil cichlid (Amphilophus labiatum) and Redheaded cichlid (Vieja synspila).

     The look of the Flowerhorn cichlids available in fish stores today is however not just the result of selective breeding. You can affect the appearance of a Flowerhorn cichlid by adjusting environmental factors such as the water chemistry in the aquarium. The food you feed your Flowerhorn cichlid can also change its look. The single most important factor behind the look of the fish is however the genetic makeup formed by selective breeding.

     The Flowerhorn has been criticised as an unnatural and dangerous hybrid, produced by money-hungry breeders just to make money. Others have been impressed by the hard work that is evidently behind the creation of the Flowerhorn Cichlid. A lot of the South American cichlids mentioned above will occasionally interbreed in the wild as well, but there is no doubt that the Flowerhorn cichlid has been deliberately produced by breeders. The Flowerhorn cichlids are not the result of random cross breeding. Some people view the Flowerhorn as a purely man-made creation while others compare the hybrid to all the other animal variants that have been refined by humans during centuries of selective breeding.

Careing :

     The Flowerhorn cichlid is considered quite easy to take care of and do not require a lot of pampering from its keeper. The first thing you need to do is of course to set up an aquarium suitable for a Flowerhorn cichlid. Your Flowerhorn will require a large aquarium to do well, since this fish grows quite big and have an aggressive temperament. If you use plants to decorate the aquarium, they might be destroyed by the Flowerhorn cichlid, and plants are not necessary in an aquarium set up for a Flowerhorn cichlid. You should however decorate the aquarium in a way that creates natural territorial borders, since the Flowerhorn cichlid is a territorial and aggressive fish. You can of course keep the Flowerhorn cichlid alone, but if you want to have more than one fish in the aquarium other big aggressive cichlids from South America is the best choice. The Flowerhorn cichlid is a tough fish and can tolerate most water conditions, but it will do best in an aquarium where the pH is neutral or slightly basic. A water temperature around 28º C is recommended.

     The Flowerhorn cichlid is a happy eater and you will not have a hard time trying to make it accept food. Its metabolism and feeding habits are similar to that of the other South American cichlids, and your Flowerhorn cichlid will need a lot of energy and nutrients to stay healthy and develop in a good way. It is actually quite hard to over-feed a Flowerhorn cichlid. Your Flowerhorn cichlid will accept most types of food, and pellets are a good base. This base should be supplemented with plenty of worms, crabs, shrimp, or similar types of meaty foods. Feeding two or tree times a day is optimal.

Since the Flowerhorn cichlid eats a lot, it will also produce a lot of waste products which pollutes the water. Frequent water changes must therefore be performed. Changing 20 percent of the water twice a week is a good rule of thumb. If you can only make one change a week, you should change around 25 percent of the water. You can lower the risk of poor water quality by avoiding food types known to pollute the water a lot.


Distribution:    Since they are a hybrid, the Flowerhorn Cichlid is domestic and only found in aquariums. This hybrid was created in the mid 1900's in Malaysia by cross breeding different species of fish, primarily South American cichlids. It is up to speculation which species actually produced these fish. The combination and different lines is a well kept secret only known by the breeders who developed these fish. It is widely accepted that the Flowerhorn Cichlid is a product of several South American cichlids such as the the Three Spot Cichlid Cichlasoma Trimaculatus, Red Terror Cichlasoma Festae, Midas Cichlid Amphilophus citrinellum, Red Devil Amphilophus labiatum, Redheaded Cichlid Vieja synspila, and even the hybrid Jingang Blood Parrot.

Status:    There are no wild populations of this species.

Description:    The Flowerhorn Cichlid has a very thick oval body with a nuchal hump on the head. Its scales can range from a bluish green metallic overall, to pinks and reds in the front half of the body. There is a black horizontal marking on most strains, though some lack this feature. The dorsal and anal fins are particularly long and pointed. The caudal fin is rounded. They can live for 8-10 years.

   There are some breeders who are trying to get better colors, bolder black markings, and a larger nuchal hump on their forehead. Obtaining a juvenile for a particular look is risky as they haven't yet developed their adult coloration. If you are looking for a specific pattern make sure you buy an adult, or buy several juveniles and hope one looks like what you want as an adult. But even obtaining just one juvenile, you can still end up with a beautiful fish. For choosing an adult, flowerhornxport.com has come up with 7 points to look for, what they call the "Flower Horn Fish Standards". These include: body shape, coloration, pearl scales, black horizontal markings, a good nuchal hump, alert distinct eyes, and erect tail and fins.


   All cichlids share a common feature that some saltwater fish such as wrasses and parrotfish have and that is a well-developed pharyngeal set of teeth that are in the throat, along with their regular teeth. Cichlids have spiny rays in the back parts of the anal, dorsal, pectoral, and pelvic fins to help discourage predators. The front part of these fins are soft and perfect for precise positions and effortless movements in the water as opposed to fast swimming.


    Cichlids have one nostril on each side while other fish have 2 sets. To sense "smells" in the water, they suck water in and expel the water right back out after being "sampled" for a short or longer time, depending on how much the cichlid needs to "smell" the water. This feature is shared by saltwater damselfish and cichlids are thought to be closely related.




Size - Weight:   The Flowerhorn Cichlid will grow to a length of 12-16" (31 - 41 cm), depending on its ancestral breeding.
Aquarium set-up information :
    Due the big size they can reach, Flowerhorn need big aquarium with a lot of free space for swimming; a 200 litres tank is the minimum you can offer to an adult fish to let it live healthily. It is a really strong fish and can live in different water conditions without having problems, anyway it is important to provide a temperature between 25°C and 30°C; pH value is also important, because acid water can tone down fish colours and make it sick, the ideal condition is a light alkaline water, with a pH between 7 and 8. Moreover it is necessary to avoid sudden condition changes of temperature and chemical values, because they can make Flowerhorn being more sensible to sickness like bacteria attacks.

    Water filtration is really important because this big fish produces lots of refuses that end increasing nitrite and nitrate levels in the water. You can choose both internal and external filtration, even if the second one is preferred to leave more free space to the fish. The biological part must work properly, so be sure to have a well activated aquarium before to house a Flowerhorn cichlid.

    Take also a look to the water current, an excessively strong one can damage the fish, anyway it is important that a slow movement is present, because it oxygenates the water, and avoids that the water heats only near heater.

    Tank decorations are important to make the fish feel quieter. Use a layer of fine gravel and be sure that rocks and woods are stable and do not risk to fall easily on the fish; be sure, as well, that all the decorations do not make the tank cleaning too much difficult. Live plants are important for filtration and oxygenation, anyway choose strong plants like big anubias, because any Flowerhorn cichlid use to dig a lot; you can also use plastic plants, even if they are not useful and you can risk that the fish accidentally eat them.

    Being big and aggressive is better not to house it with other fish species, specially if they are smaller. While if you plan to house more than one Flowerhorn, provide a big tank and divide it with accessories to let fish divide the territory; to avoid fights it is recommended not to keep more than two or three fish together in the same tank.



Care and feeding:

    Flowerhorn like similar sized fish, astronotus ocellatus for example, need a live food integration to be healthy and in shape. Their diet can consist of live food, frozen food, and standard dry fish food. The live food should be of good dimension, or the fish could not notice it, earth worms and big meal worms or wax worm are accepted; moreover you can give small fish, poecilia reticulata could be a good choice since the high number of fry they spare monthly. Remember to feed every live food you choose, and in case of live fish be sure they are healthy.

    Frozen food is another good solution, especially when you do not have the live one. Young Flowerhorn usually eat chironomus, brine shrimps and other frozen fish foods, while older ones could not notice them; at their place you can offer frozen fish for human use, you have a great choice, anyway if possible get freshwater fish and avoid the sea ones.

    Both live and frozen food can pollute the water, so be sure that Flowerhorn eats all the given food in 5 minutes maximum, in case of rests remove them fast; for this reason it is better to have an aquarium set up that allow you to clean fast without needing to move objects.

    Dry standard fish food is a good complementary option, especially if it is of good quality. You can find special food produced for cichlids that usually consist of big pellets that Flowerhornlike.

    A Flowerhorn cichlid should be fed two times a day, everyday, anyway be careful with the quantities and avoid to overfeed it, reducing the food amount specially if it is really rich of nutrients.

Water Region: Top, Middle, Bottom:    These fish will swim in all areas of the aquarium.

Acceptable Water Conditions:    Hardness: 9 -20° dH
   Ph: 6.5 - 7.8 (neutral to slightly acidic preferred)
   Temp: 80 - 89° F (27 - 32° C)


Social Behaviors: The Flowerhorn Cichlid is not a community cichlid, it is territorial and aggressive. This fish is best kept alone. Even your hands are fair game and its bite can hurt. It can only be kept with other fish if the tank is very large, 200 gallons or more may be required. Keeping other fish out of its 'line of sight' will help to lower aggression, so decorate in a way that provides natural borders for its territory.
   If breeding you may have to take steps to prevent a pair from killing each other. They are aggressive toward those of the same species. They will will not tolerate those of a different genus.


Sexual Differences:    Sexing is unconfirmed, and several methods have been suggested. When adults are ready to breed there is a thick tube that sticks out of the vent area. Some say the male's tube is thicker and others say the female's is thicker, some say the vent is bigger not the tube, and some say the female may have a black spot on the dorsal fin. A technique used by tilapia farmers for juveniles is to take the juvenile and lay it on its back in your hand out of the water. With the belly facing up, gently press the belly from below the "rib cage" down toward the vent. If it is a male then a clear liquid will squirt out and females will not squirt anything. This is pretty accurate according to some experts.



Breeding : 


    Sexing Flowerhorn is quite easy, especially when they have reached the length of 10 cm – 12 cm. The anal pore of the fish has a V shape in case of males and a U shape in case of females. Moreover females tend to have a smaller hump when adults.

    Being cichlids their reproduction can be similar to the cichlasoma one. The female lays eggs on a flat surface, like a rock or the aquarium glass and take care of them, while the male keeps other fish away. After 3 or 4 days the fry hatch and parents take care of them moving in more secure hiding places. You can feed them with just hatched brine shrimps and other specific food for fry.

   Breeding is not so easy because female can be easily stressed or worried and ends up eating her eggs, anyway if the environment is quiet and the parents are healthy reproduction is possible.

Flowerhorn Diseases

Common Flowerhorn Diseases and Treatment
Caring for your Flower Horn is not just about feeding it, it’s also about watching for potentially serious health conditions. Below are some of the problems your Flower horn might experience.

White Spot Disease

Cause and Symptoms
  • The cause of this condition is Ichthyophithirius multifilis (ICH ) , a ciliated protozoan .
  • Bad water quality can increase the likelihood that your fish will be victim to this parasite.
  • Low water temperatures (< 25°C) are ideal breeding grounds for ICH.
  • The most common way Flower horns get ICH is when they are fed live or frozen food that has already been contaminated with the parasite.
  • The most prominent symptom of this condition are the pure white spots that will appear all over your fish. You may also notice the fins are clumped together, and they act a bit more lethargic than usual. Moreover, it’s common for them to lose interest in food when ICH infects.
Treatment
The parasites resides under the skin of the fish, hence it is not affected by water treatment or direct treatment applied to the fish . Break the breeding cycle of Ich by washing the tank thoroughly to remove the cysts of the parasite. Keep in mind that this is a highly contagious condition, so your entire aquarium must be treated.


To cure white spots:
  • Place Kordon Ich inhibitor in your tank.
  • Add aquarium salt at 3g/l of water every 3 days together with the medication.
  • After 3rd day, tank must be washed thoroughly to eliminate the causative agent.
  • Add Kordon Malachite Green treatment to your tank.
Preventive measures:
  • Add Kordon Prevent Ich Fish Disease Inhibitor and Preventative to your tank.
  • Quarantine new fish for three to four weeks.
  • Avoid cross-tank contamination.
Hole-In-The-Head Disease
Cause and Symptoms
  • The cause of this condition is Hexamita Protozoa , parasitic organisms that are highly contagious.
  • These parasites thrive with poor water quality management.
  • If your fish has this condition, you will notice the appearance of small pits and pimples mainly on the fish’s head. These pits will simply grow and form bigger pits.
  • The pits are white in color, and sometimes mucous are visible around them.
  • In addition to losing weight, becoming lethargic, and losing their appetites, the fish will produce white, stringy feces.
Treatment
  • Add Dimetrydazole (5mg/l) or Metronidazole (7mg/l).
  • Repeat treatment once every 3 days.
  • Do a 20%-30% water change.
  • It is sometimes necessary to inject Metronidazole, but injections near the affected area should be attempt only by qualified personnel.
Preventive measures :
  • Change your water regularly.
  • Quarantine new fish for three to four weeks.
  • Avoid cross-tank contamination.

Mouth, body and tail fungus

Causes & Symptoms
  • This condition is caused by Saproglenia and other related bacteria.
  • Bad water quality only causes these kinds of bacteria to thrive.
  • Sudden changes in the water condition can also cause this condition in your fish.
  • If your fish has this condition, you will notice cotton like tufts at the mouth, body, fin and tail.
  • You may also notice your fish losing weight.
Treatment
  • Add Aquarium Pharmaceuticals Aquarium Salt to your tank.
  • Adding Jungle Labs Fungus Eliminator will also help.
  • Be sure to treat the whole tank, but quarantine the most seriously ill fish.
Preventive measures :
  • Change your water regularly.
  • Quarantine new fish for three to four weeks.
  • Avoid cross-tank contamination.
Dropsy
Causes & Symptoms
  • This condition is caused by a bacterial infection.
  • Poor water quality, overcrowding, and stress can make your fish more susceptible to this condition.
  • If your fish is affected, he may appear bloated and stop eating
Treatment
· Do not add aquarium salt to your tank.
· Use a commercially prepared treatment available at your local pet shop.
Preventive measures :
  • Change your water regularly.
  • Quarantine new fish for three to four weeks to avoid the introduction of new, dangerous bacteria.
  • Avoid cross-tank contamination.

Fin & Tail Rot Disease
Causes & Symptoms
  • This condition is caused by Pseudomonas and other related bacteria.
  • Poor water quality causes these bacteria to thrive in your tank.
  • If your fish is affected, the fin and tail appeared eaten away and white edged. You may even notice the fin or tail beginning to literally dissolve.
  • The color of the fish may dull, and the fins may clump together.
  • This bacteria is highly contagious.
Treatment
  • Treat the whole tank, but quarantine and treat the heavily infected fish.
  • Tetracycline should be added.

Preventive measures :
  • Change your water regularly.
  • Quarantine new fish for three to four weeks.
  • Avoid cross-tank contamination.
Air Bladder Disease
Causes & Symptoms
  • This condition is caused by a number of things, but the most likely problems are a virus or a bacterial infection.
  • If your fish has this condition, you may notice they have trouble swimming correctly, or they tend to swim upside down.
Treatment
  • Because it can be hard to determine the cause of this problem, it can also be difficult to treat it, but in general, an antibiotic agent should take care of the problem.
Preventive measures :
  • Change your water regularly.
  • Quarantine new fish for three to four weeks.
  • Avoid cross-tank contamination.

Velvet Disease
Causes & Symptoms
  • This condition is caused by a fungus living in your tank.
  • Poor water quality causes this fungus to thrive in your tank.
  • If your fish is affected, he may stop swimming, and he may begin to look ill.
Treatment
· Add Copper Sulfate (Blue Crystal) to your tank. Be sure to use the ratio of 1 g Copper Sulfate and 0.25g Citric Acid to 1 litre of distilled water. Dosage instructions: 12.5 ml to 10 litres of aquarium water for 10 days. Administer half of this on days three, five and seven.
Preventive measures :
  • Change your water regularly.
  • Quarantine new fish for three to four weeks.
  • Avoid cross-tank contamination.

**************************************************************

  If you need to support this webblog , you can buy some fish article in

this link Thankyou very much for your kindly support ^ _ ^

**************************************************************

Credits :  www.animalworld.com

                 http://aquafish.co.in/updates/?page_id=8



                     





วันจันทร์ที่ 22 ตุลาคม พ.ศ. 2555

Pic of the day : Common Sucker and YoYo Loach




    They are Common Sucker with a cute YoYo Loach , I think they are a good tankmate  ^ _ ^

I see this picture from my face book 's group so i ll pick it in to my webblog , because i think

this pic look so cute .

Fish Data : Fire Mouth Cichlid



Common name:

   Firemouth Cichlid

Distribution
   Guatemala and the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. It is also said to be found in underground waterways.

General Body Form:

   Tall with strong lateral compression. It has a large head and its' forehead is slightly curved around the eyes. The dorsal fin starts at the gill covers. In older fish the tail (caudal) fin is bent slightly in and the outer rays can get very long. In the male the Dorsal and Anal fins are longer and more pointed.

Description : They have a base The Fire mouth Cichlid is an impressive species that originates in shallow, slow-moving waters in Central America. They get their name from their intense orange-red throat and lower operculum (gill cover) coloration. This species does not seem to be afraid of anything and will usually hold its own when housed with larger, more aggressive Cichlids. color of tan to gray, with around 6 mild, vertical bands; on the third to fourth band, there is a black, ocellus spot. They also have a black, ocellus spot on their operculum, which is bordered with iridescent, pale-gold hues. They also have translucent fins with a variety of iridescent
blue and orange-red markings. The male Firemouth Cichlid has the most intense coloration as well as elongated and pointy anal and dorsal fins.

Coloration:

    The most noticeable trait of the Firemouth is its throat and breast area, which ranges from bright fiery Red to Brick Red and is the reason for the common name. With a closer look you can see a wide range of colors in the fish. The basic background color is bluish Gray, with a slight purple sheen. The under area is Yellow Green to Orange. The sides have a series of faint dark bars.

A Golden edged blackspot is right behind the eyes a similar one is found at the start of the tail fin. Other Black marks with Golden edges can be seen on the lower edge of the gill cover and at the start of the clear Pectoral fins. The Dorsal fin is edged in Red and the rays of the other fins are slightly Brown with the membranes speckled with Bright Blue - Green spots. All the scales seem to edged with Red. Females are not as colorful as the males. An all around beautiful fish!

Lifespan : 8 years or longer

Origin / Habitat : Central America, Belize river, Mexico, Guatemala

Distribution:    The Firemouth Cichlid was described by Brind in 1918. They are found in Central America; Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. They inhabit the middle and bottom areas of slow moving rivers, ponds, and canals with sandy or muddy bottoms. They stay close to vegetation near the shore where they feed on algae along with some meaty foods.

Status:    This species is not listed on the IUCN Red List.

Care and feeding:    Since they are omnivorous the Firemouth Cichlid will generally eat all kinds of flake, fresh, and live foods. To keep a good balance give them a high quality flake food or pellet everyday. Feed brine shrimp (either live or frozen) or blood worms as a treat.
   A minimum 20 gallon aquarium is suggested for a pair, though a larger tank would be needed if keeping several. They need good water movement along with strong and efficient filtration. Provide a bottom of fine sand and plenty of hiding places among rocks and wood. Plants are appreciated but should be hardy, such as Sagittaria. Place the plants around the inside perimeter leaving an open area in the center for swimming. The plants should be potted to protect the roots.

   The Firemouth Cichlid can be rewarding specimen for a beginning aquarist as they are relatively easy to keep. Do water changes of 15 to 20% a week depending on bio load. They are subject to infections as well as other diseases that ail all freshwater fish. 

Water Region: Top, Middle, Bottom:    These fish will swim in the middle and lower areas of the aquarium.




Acceptable Water Conditions:    Hardness: 8 - 15° dH
    Ph: 6.5 - 8.0
   Temp: 70 - 75° F (21 - 24° C)


Social Behaviors:    The Firemouth Cichlids can be a good community fish and are not usually aggressive except when spawning. They should be kept with similar sized tankmates. In a large tank several pairs can be kept. They are monogamous and will pair off, developing a strong nuclear family. They get territorial when spawning and also may burrow, damaging plants at that time. They are, however, very good parents.

Firemouth Cichlid Compatible Tank Mates : Some hobbyists report that they keep them with larger tetras originating from Central America and they co-exist just fine with the Firemouth. Use caution and be prepared to remove fish if you see signs of aggression.



Fish Disease :  Diagnose, Symptoms and Treatment. They are fairly hardy but are not immune to ich infestations.

Sexual Differences:    The male has a more pointed dorsal and anal fins and is more intensely colored, especially during breeding. 


Breeding : Firemouth Cichlids are egg layers that practice brood care; a breeding pair of Firemouth Cichlids will aggressively attack anything that comes near their breeding territory. Although Firemouth Cichlids usually breed well under normal aquarium conditions; to induce breeding the water temperature can be raised to and maintained at  26 – 27 C. The female Firemouth Cichlid will lay around 300 eggs in a carefully cleaned location (driftwood, flat rocks, slate, large plant leaves, cave-like structures, etc.) within the aquarium. The eggs will hatch in 2-3 days and the fry will be relocated to pre-dug pits in the substrate. The fry will be free-swimming within a week. The pair of Firemouth Cichlids will continue to breed every few weeks if the fry are removed 1-2 weeks after they hatch. The newly hatched fry can be fed a diet of baby brine shrimp or crushed flake food and then be moved to other foods as they mature.


**************************************************************

  If you need to support this webblog , you can buy some fish article in

this link Thankyou very much for your kindly support ^ _ ^

**************************************************************

Reference


http://cichlidcarecenter.com/firemouth-cichlid/

http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/firemouth.php

http://www.aquariumdomain.com/viewSpeciesNWCichlid.php?id=22

http://badmanstropicalfish.com/profiles/profile43.html

http://www.fishlore.com/profile-firemouthcichlid.htm

http://www.fishkeeping.co.uk/modules/caresheets/caresheet.php?caresheetID=109








วันเสาร์ที่ 20 ตุลาคม พ.ศ. 2555

Pic of The day : Fancy Walking catfish


   I think he is very cute !!!  ^ _ ^  Look Amazing with his dot pattern




 credit :

http://aqua.c1ub.net/forum/index.php?topic=194887.0

วันพฤหัสบดีที่ 18 ตุลาคม พ.ศ. 2555

Pic of the day : Best in show champion Arowana


This is a really beautiful Arowana picture.This Arowana can received best in show trophy , in Thailand 's National Aquarium show , The Mall Bangkapi .






Amazing Aquarium Phone Booth







   " king jiew bu "  students from the University of Kyoto , Japan . Who have a creative ideas to transformed phone booth to an aquarium with gold fish ,The goldfish Swimming like a circle in phone boot . Become to an interest and appeal for many people, especially the children as well. ^ _ ^

Fish Data : Cockatoo Cichlid



Scientific Name : Apistogramma cacatuoides
Common Names : Cockatoo Cichlid
Care Level : Medium, since you need a well established tank for them
Size : 2 - 3.5 inches (5 - 9 cm)
pH : 6.0 - 7.0
Temperature : 79 - 84°F (26 - 29°C)
Water Hardness : prefers soft water
Lifespan : usually around 3 - 5 years
Origin: Amazon river, South America

Temperament: Peaceful

Company: Apistogramma cacatuoides (Cockatoo Dwarf Cichlid) should only be kept with other small peacefull fishes.

Water parameters: Temperature 23-26°C / 73-79°F; pH 6.0 – 8.0

Distribution:    The Cockatoo Cichlid, also known as the Cockatoo Dwarf Cichlid or Crested Dwarf Cichlid, was described by Hoedeman in 1951. They are basically found in Brazil and Boliviain inhabiting tributaries of the Amazon River basin. Also found in tributaries of the Solimoes, Ucayali, and Amazon rivers from the Pacheta River to Tabatinga. They are dwell in shallow, slow-moving to almost still, clear and white water areas of the Amazon River.

Status:    This species is not listed on the IUCN Red List.




Description:    The Cockatoo Cichlid is a small colorful fish. The body has a silvery gray base and a long black horizontal line that runs through the middle. The male's first several rays of the dorsal fin are extended higher than the rest, giving the "cockatoo" look. The top and bottom rays of the tail fin are longer as well, and brightly colored on the male. The male's belly and bottom fins are golden brown.
   Females will be a drab yellow with the front of the ventral fins becoming solid black as she matures. Her tail fin will be more rounded as well. Once she lays her eggs, her yellow coloring becomes more intense. They can live up to 5 years.
   Though the wild caught fish are less dramatic, with today's selective breeding a variety of pretty color forms are readily available. Some of the specifically bred out colorings are called Sunset, Red, Double Red, Triple Red, and Sun Spot. Some of the triple red couples can produce 3 different color variations. This interbreeding for color has contributed to spinal malformations in the Cockatoo Cichlid. This defect should be watched for and all such fish humanely destroyed. Breeding a wild caught with a captive bred helps to keep the lines healthier.


   All cichlids share a common feature that some saltwater fish such as wrasses and parrotfish have and that is a well-developed pharyngeal set of teeth that are in the throat, along with their regular teeth. Cichlids have spiny rays in the back parts of the anal, dorsal, pectoral, and pelvic fins to help discourage predators. The front part of these fins are soft and perfect for precise positions and effortless movements in the water as opposed to fast swimming.


   Cichlids have one nostril on each side while other fish have 2 sets. To sense "smells" in the water, they suck water in and expel the water right back out after being "sampled" for a short or longer time, depending on how much the cichlid needs to "smell" the water. This feature is shared by saltwater damselfish and cichlids are thought to be closely related.


Care and feeding:    The Cockatoo Cichlid is a carnivore that can be fed newly hatched baby brine, frozen brine shrimp, crustaceans, insects, insect larvae, and some may eat flakes and pelleted foods. Feed 2 to 5 small pinches of food a day in smaller amounts rather than a large quantity once a day. This will keep the water quality higher over a longer time. All fish benefit from vitamins and supplements added to their foods.


 A minimum 20 gallon tank is suggested. They prefer slow to moderate moving water along with good efficient filtration. The aquarium should have a cover and low to moderate lighting. Provide a substrate of fine dark sand along with rocks and pots to create plenty of caves, one for each female's territory. Caves formed from rockwork or including synthetics like coconuts or clay pots, will provide a refuge for the fish as well as a place for breeding. They do enjoy densely planted aquariums. Floating plants help to diffuse lighting. If using live plants, dense plantings that will provide shade for your fish do need time to grow out. Amazon Swordplants, Vallisneria, and other acidic tolerating plants work great, as can Wisteria. Make areas for them to "defend" by having natural divisions in the aquascaping.

   The Cockatoo Cichlid is a rewarding specimen for the aquarist but they are sensitive to water parameters and medication. They can be easy to care for if water changes are performed frequently to keep the nitrate levels low. A mature tank with soft water and a pH of acidic to neutral is best. Keep track of nitrates. Also, oxygen levels must be maintained for best color and health. Though the Cockatoo Cichlid can tolerate neutral water better than other dwarf cichlids, do not allow the pH to go above 7.8. When using substrate or rocks, be sure they do not leach into the water and affect the pH. Substrates such as limestone can increase the pH level, you would not use sand that is for marine tanks. Driftwood is a big help in keeping pH low and contributes to the "tea stained" coloring of the Amazon River.


   Do water changes of 10% to 20% biweekly or weekly, more or less depending on stocking numbers. If water quality is ignored, as with all cichlids, disease and death can occur. One common problem is Ich. It can be treated with the elevation of the tank temperature to 86° F (30° C) for 3 days.


Water Region: Top, Middle, Bottom:    These fish will swim in the middle and bottom areas of the aquarium.

Acceptable Water Conditions:    Hardness: 5 - 19° dH
   Ph: 6.0 - 7.8
   Temp: 75 - 81° F (24 - 27° C)


Social Behaviors:    The Cockatoo Cichlid is a community fish that can be kept with fish that are not large and aggressive. South American cichlids tend to be less aggressive than their African cousins, but space is very important. Some acceptable tank mates are Cardinal Tetras (though during breeding, the Cockatoo Cichlid can chase them right out of the tank if there is not adequate space), Otocinclus Catfish, Julii Cory, Three-Line Pencilfish, Glowlight Rasbora (Hengel's), Dwarf Gourami, Kuhli Loach, and Dwarf Rainbowfish (Neon).
   They can be kept alone, in pairs, or in harems of one male with several females. More than one male may be kept if the aquarium is large.




Sex differences: Males are larger then females.  Males can grow up to 8 cm whereas the females can get to 5 cm The first rays on the male's dorsal are greatly enlarged (spiky looking).  The dorsal, anal and ventral fins are elongated.  Manmade colour forms seem to lose a lot of the elongation of the fins.
Females exhibit black on the leading edge of the pectoral fins.   Females will turn yellow with black when guarding eggs or fry.
Types: orange*, reds*, double reds*, triple reds*, red flash*, gold-orange, gold, yellow*, blue, green
*man made 


Keeping: pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5.0 - 19.0; 24 - 25°C

Breeding habits: Cacatuoides are cave spawners.  These fish are territorial and polygamous (more females per male).  The Cockatoo Cichlids are cave spawners. They appreciate upturned flowerpots, fake "coconut caves," bogwood, and broad leafed plants for cover and as spawning sites. They do need to have a pH under 7.5 for the eggs to hatch. Ideal water conditions are a pH of 6.8 to 7.2 or less, hardness of 10 or less and temperature of 78° to 84° F (26° to 29° C) Basically the more acidic and soft, the more prolific they are.

    Get 6 juveniles and let them grow up together. Spinal problems have arisen since there has been so much interbreeding for color. That being said, be sure their spines and physical health is optimal. From the 6 juveniles at least one pair, if not a harem, will form. You may or may not decide to remove the others, depending on your tank size. Condition them with live foods.


    The female will approach the male, curve her body, and display to catch his attention. When he sees her, he will then "dance" by flashing his fins. The female will lay up to 80 oval red eggs on the surface of her cave. The male will fertilize them and promptly leave the cave to patrol on the outside, leaving the female to care for them. In a harem situation, the male will visit the "cave" of each female and breed with her. She will have an area that she guards within the male's territory. When several females are brooding, they will actually kidnap each others fry to add to their school!


    The eggs will hatch in 3 to 4 days, depending on water temperature. The fry will be swimming freely a few days after hatching. Interestingly, if the water temperature is low (68° F or 20° C) most of the fry will be females, while with higher temperatures (86° F or 30° C) the fry will mostly be male. pH also plays a role in the sex of the fry, but to a much less extent. The conditions must also be kept constant for the first 3 weeks to be effective. The fry grow fairly quick and they can be fed rotifers and in a week or two then fed nauplii 3 times a day. They can also be fed live freshly hatched baby brine shrimp 3 times a day. Sexing is pretty easy since males have longer fins and are larger than the females.


 The female can become quite nasty after the fry are hatched. Some aquarists will removed the "cave" with the female inside by using bowl large enough to keep the water, the eggs, and the female in while preventing them them from hitting the air. Once in a 10 gallon bare tank, you may or may not choose to remove the female as well. If in a species specific tank, you may leave the female and babies in the tank and watch the interesting behavior of fry herding that the mother does. The female may actually allow the male to help her guard the fry for the next month, but this all depends on your tank stock and the personality of your Cockatoo Cichlids.


**************************************************************

  If you need to support this webblog , you can buy some fish article in

this link Thankyou very much for your kindly support ^ _ ^

**************************************************************


Reference

http://badmanstropicalfish.com/profiles/profile74.html
http://www.fishlore.com/aquariummagazine/nov07/cockatoo-cichlid.htm
http://www.wereallwet.com/cockatoo-cichlid-care-and-information/
http://www.fishkeeping.co.uk/modules/caresheets/caresheet.php?caresheetID=130
http://www.aquaticcommunity.com/fish/cockatoodwarfcichlid.php
http://users.kent.net/~lisab/Cockatoo.html
http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/CockatooCichlid.php
http://www.slojo.co.za/Apistogramma_cacatuoides2.jpg
http://www.fishforums.net/index.php?/topic/50702-african-cichlids-and-otocinclus/




วันพุธที่ 17 ตุลาคม พ.ศ. 2555

Pics of The Day : Apistogramma Elizabethae Cichlid

This is an Apistogramma Elizabethae cichlid ^ _ ^





And this is a baby of this cichlid






Credits : http://aqua.c1ub.net/forum/index.php?topic=195556.0

Fish Data : Bolivian Ram Cichlid


Chor-Kiat Yeo

General Information

    The Bolivian Ram (Mikrogeophagus altispinosus) is a widely available and very popular species of Cichlid within the aquarium trade. Beyond simply being an attractive fish species, Bolivian Rams are very tolerant of a variety of water conditions including pH, temperature and water hardness. In addition to being a hardy species, Bolivian Rams are also a peaceful species that can be house with a variety of other peaceful to semi-aggressive fish species. However, being a shy species the Bolivian Ram will not do well with more aggressive or large Cichlid species. Bolivian Rams can be kept in a pair or in a group of individuals. If kept in a group their will be some initial fighting to establish a dominant male, but this should soon subside once dominance is established and further fights will be rare.
    Although the Bolivian Ram is tolerant of a wide range of water parameters, they are intolerant of poor water conditions. Since they originate from large river systems that have plenty of water volume and turnover, they are accustomed to high quality water conditions. It is important to employ a quality filtration system with strong biological and mechanical filtration, along with partial water changes to keep nitrate levels low. Bolivian Rams live in dimly lit and heavily vegetated river bottoms, thus they will prefer an aquarium setup that mimics their natural habitat. An ideal aquarium setup will have a sandy substrate, dense vegetation, some driftwood, moderate water flow and diffused or dim lighting. Tank mates should include other smaller peaceful to semi-aggressive Cichlid species and hardy tropical community fish species. A pair of Bolivian Rams will do well in a 30 gallon aquarium, with a larger aquarium being recommended for a group of Rams or if they are housed with other fish species.

Distribution

    Richter (1989), reports M. altispinisa from the Rio Mamore around the junction the Rio Guapore, near the town of Trinidad; the river basin of the Rio Guapore at Santa Cruz. in Bolivia; the Rio Quizer near San Ramon; the depression below Todos Santos in Bolivia and at the mouth of the Igarape near Guajara-Mirim in Brazil.

Comparisons to M. ramirezi

    The Bolivian ram grows a little larger than it's Venezuelan cousin, male reaching about 10 cm (4 in.) total length, females remaining a little smaller. Aside from the size differences, male M. altispinosa are slimmer and less stocky than females, and also have extensions on the upper and Inner rays of the caudal fin. Consistent with the Venezuelan ram, these fish are biparental, open substrate spawners, quite opposite from the polygynous, cave .spawning Apistogramma


Description

    The Bolivian ram is sometimes confused with its cousin the popular common or blue ram. Unlike M. ramirezi, the larger Bolivian ram is more adaptable with respect to water parameters (temperature, pH and hardness as noted); however, both species require stable water quality and should not be introduced to new setups but only an established aquarium. This fish can live up to four years.
    The tank should be densely planted but provide some swimming space; a dark substrate and subdued lighting will intensify the pattern (stripes) and colours of this species. Males are territorial, and suitable territories can be provided by plants and bogwood or rocks. Males will defend their territories against other males of the species, but with sufficient space they seldom inflict damage to each other. Non-species tankmates are usually ignored except at feeding when the fish may "push" others like Corydoras out of the way, but without any injury.

    Sexual dimorphism is rather limited with males larger in size and showing longer extensions on both the caudal and the posterior of the dorsal fins; these characteristics are more reliable in mature fish. Examination of the ovipositor can sometimes also indicate sex with the female displaying a larger, rounder appearance to pass eggs through, while the male displays a more pointed appearance; this may only be evident when the fish is ready to spawn. The photo above on the right shows a pair (upper fish male, lower female) over a clutch of eggs. The Bolivian ram is a substrate spawner, laying the eggs in a depression in the substrate or on a flat rock or piece of wood cleaned by the female. Both parents, though primarily the female, fan the eggs and the female tends the fry while the male defends the territory.

    Observations made in the habitat suggest that this species lives in solitude (individual fish alone) apart from reproduction periods (Linke & Staeck, 1994). Single fish are therefore good cichlids for a community aquarium. More than one can be housed if the tank provides sufficient floor space for individual territories. The fish remains in the lower third of the water column, spending most of its time browsing the substrate for bits of food.

    Originally described as Crenicara altispinosa by Haseman in 1911, for a time it was considered in the genera Microgeophagus and Papiliochromis until 2003 when the Swedish ichthyologist and cichlid authority Sven Kullander placed it in Mikrogeophagus along with the closely-related species M. ramirezi; these are the only species in this genus that was established in 1968 by Meulengracht-Madsen. The genus name derives from the Greek mikr [= small], geo [= earth] and phag [= eat], literally "small eartheater." The species epithet is derived from the Latin alt [high] and spinos [spiny], referring to the elongated first ray of the dorsal fin. The valid spelling is altispinosus, not altispinosa, to agree with the gender of the genus name.

Size - Weight:    This fish grows to a length of about 3" (8 cm).

Care and feeding:    The Bolivian Ram is primarily a carnivore that can be fed a mix of meaty foods that are live or frozen; such as brine shrimp, blood worms, white worms, chopped earthworms, cyclopeeze, and artemia. Some may eat flakes and pellets, but these should not be the staple of their diet. Feed 2 to 5 small pinches of food a day in smaller amounts instead of a large quantity once a day. This will keep the water quality higher over a longer time. All fish benefit from vitamins and supplements added to their foods.

   A minimum 20 gallon tank is suggested. They prefer slow to moderate moving water along with good efficient filtration. The aquarium should have a cover and low to moderate lighting. An environment with rocks, driftwood, and flowerpots for hiding are appreciated. They also enjoy several dense plant clusters but leave some open space for swimming. Java Fern, Anubias Nana, Amazon Swordplants, Vallisneria, Wisteria, and other acidic tolerating plants work great. As the Bolivian Ram does not like to breed in bright lighting, some floating plants will help to diffuse lighting if you are encouraging them to spawn. Granite pebbles or plants with wide leaves are good for spawning too. Java Moss is also great as it contains micro organisms such as Infusoria to provide a good beginning food for the fry.



   The Bolivian Ram is a rewarding specimen for the aquarist. They can be easy to care for if water changes are performed frequently to keep the nitrate levels low. A mature tank with a pH of acidic to neutral water is best. Keep track of nitrates. Also, oxygen levels must be maintained for best color and health. When using substrate or rocks, be sure they do not leach into the water and affect the pH. Substrates such as limestone can increase the pH level. You would not use sand that is for marine tanks, but some have suggested pool filter sand. Driftwood is a big help in keeping pH low and contributes to the "tea stained" coloring of the Amazon River. Using Java Moss helps with keeping the pH down too.

   Do water changes of 30% weekly, more or less depending on stocking numbers. If water quality is ignored, as with all cichlids, disease and death can occur. One common problem is Ich. It can be treated with the elevation of the tank temperature to 86° F (30° C) for 3 days.


Water Region: Top, Middle, Bottom:    These fish will swim in all areas of the aquarium.

Acceptable Water Conditions:    Hardness: 6 - 14° dH
   Ph: 6.0 - 7.4
   Temp: 74 - 78° F (23 - 26° C), 77 - 82.4° F (25 - 28° C) to induce spawning.



Social Behaviors:    This is a community fish that can be kept with non-cichlid fish and other peaceful dwarf cichlids. The Bolivian Ram is 'more bark than bite' and will not do well in an aggressive tank. They are just a little more aggressive than the Ram Cichlid, but not at all aggressive by cichlid standards. Some acceptable peaceful tank mates include the Silver Dollar, Dwarf Gourami, Dwarf Rainbowfish (Neon), Synodontis catfish and plecostomus, to name a few. They do tend to eat tetras.

   They can be kept alone or in pairs. More than one male may be kept if the aquarium is large. Just buying a male and female does not necessarily mean they will pair up. It is better to get a group of juveniles and allow a pair to bond. A pair will swim close together, and at that point you can put them in their own tank.


Sexual Differences:    Males are slimmer and less stocky than females. Males have a more pointed dorsal fin and longer filaments on their lyre-shaped tail fin than the females. Unlike the Ram Cichlid, females do not have a pink belly.

Breeding/Reproduction:    

   The Bolivian Rams are open spawners. They appreciate smooth pebbles or wide leaves to spawn on, a temperature of 77 - 82.4° F (25 - 28° C), and low light. Starting out with about 6 juveniles and allowing a pair to bond, then putting them in their own tank is your best bet. The bonded pair will spend a lot of time cleaning the top of pebbles before they spawn. The female will pass over the spawning site several times, laying eggs each time while the male stands guard. The female will lay 75 to 100 gray oval eggs. Then the male will pass over them several times to externally fertilize them. The female will fan the eggs with the male guarding the area. The male will fan the eggs at times too, though the female does most of the work. (This is probably one of the reasons their genus was changed from Apistogramma to Mikrogeophagus, since the Apisto males do not care for the eggs.)

   Within about 60 hours the eggs will hatch. The parents will move the "wigglers" to a pit in a different area of the tank. In about 7 more days the fry are free swimming. The parents will continue to move the fry, by mouth, to several locations for the next few weeks.
  

If your fish are in a community tank it will be necessary to grow out the fry in their own tank so they don't get eaten. Do water changes of 30% daily in the fry tank as they are very sensitive to nitrates. Do not crowd the fry either, they will not grow out as much if there are to many in one tank.


**************************************************************

  If you need to support this webblog , you can buy some fish article in

this link Thankyou very much for your kindly support ^ _ ^

************************************************************** Picture Credit : http://www.seriouslyfish.com/species/mikrogeophagus-altispinosus/