วันศุกร์ที่ 21 กันยายน พ.ศ. 2555

Fish Data : Daffodil Cichlid


Scientific Name

Neolamprologus Pulcher

Common Name
Daffodil Cichlid

Region
Lake Tanganyika
General Information
    The Daffodil Cichlid is a small fish that, outside of the tropical fish tank, is found wild in only one lake in the world. This does not make them rare, since the lake to which they are endemic is actually the world's second largest by volume, Africa's Lake Tanganyika in Tanzania, which includes more than 250 species of cichlids, with the daffodil cichlid being just one. The limited range of the cichlid does, however, mean it has more specific requirements for aquarium survival than some species.
Distribution:    The Daffodil Cichlid was described by Trewavas and Poll in 1952. These fish are endemic to Lake Tanganyika and are found widespread in the southern part of lake. They inhabit rocky coastlines and swim in large schools, but will form monogamous pairs to spawn in caves. They feed on swarms of plankton drifting in the lake water along with microorganisms such as small crustaceans and invertebrates. 

Status:    This species is listed on the IUCN Red List with the status of 'LC', meaning 'Least Concern'. 

Description:    The Daffodil Cichlid is a graceful fish and has a very pleasing coloration. They have a light colored tan body washed with hints of yellow and bluish purple spots. The yellow is stronger along the upper portion of the body and onto the dorsal fin, and around the base of the pectoral fin. There are two vertical crescent shaped bars just behind the eye highlighted with a bit of blue. The dorsal fin is lyre shaped and they develop long flowing filaments on all unpaired fins. The fins are tipped with an icy blue. They have brilliant blue eyes. 

Size - Weight:    The Daffodil Cichlid grows to a length of 4 - 5" (10 -13 cm), generally larger specimens in home aquaria.


Aquarium
     Daffodil cichlids grow up to five inches in length and tend to be active swimmers, so they need a decent sized aquarium. If keeping just daffodil cichlids, then a tank of 15 gallons or larger is suitable. Mixing in other species requires more space to avoid conflict, so a minimum size of 50 gallons is best for an aquarium. The aquarium should have a layer of either sand or fine substrate on the bottom and have plenty of rocks, caves and hiding places for the fish.

 Aquarium Conditions
     The aquarium needs an efficient filter to keep the water's oxygen levels high and clean away solid waste. Daffodil cichlids prefer an alkaline water with a pH of over 8 up to 8.5, as lake Tanganyika is somewhat salty, like an inland ocean. If caught from the wild, the cichlids prefer the higher end of the pH range. The fish fare best with a water temperature of between 72 to 77 degrees Fahrenheit and cannot tolerate higher or lower temperatures for long.

Feeding

     Daffodil cichlids are omnivores in the wild, and they eat plankton, crustaceans and small invertebrate, as well as some aquatic plants. In captivity, small daily feeds of commercial flaked fish food and occasional live or frozen brine shrimp offer a balanced diet. The fish should not be overfed, as uneaten food can rot and affect water quality.

Water Region: Top, Middle, Bottom: These fish will swim in all areas of the aquarium. 

Acceptable Water Conditions:    Hardness: 10-20 dGH
   Ph: 8.0 to 8.5, wild caught specimens prefer the higher Ph.
   Temp: 72-77° F (22-25° C)


Being a male cichlid 'nanny' brings its rewards

Lake Tanganyika is the second to largest lake in the world, thus contributing to a low fluctuation in Ph and temperature. Several things all Lake Tanganyikan cichlids need are:
  1. Stable temperatures kept within acceptable limits. Anything under 72° F and over 86° F for too long is not tolerated by many of these fish (for ich, a few days at 86° F is acceptable according to one author).
  2. Lots of oxygen to survive. Lake Tanganyika is a very oxygen rich lake. Bubblers need to be going day and night, even if there are plants.
  3. Avoid overfeeding and overstocking.
  4. Do a 10-20% water change weekly.
  5. Regularly check nitrates (no more than 25 ppm), Ph (less than 7 is not tolerated), total hardness and carbonate hardness.
Social Behaviors:    

    The Daffodil Cichlid is a fairly non-aggressive community fish. They can be kept in a smaller species only tank or in a larger aquarium with other durable fish. However they are avid spawners and breeding pairs will establish a territory and defended it together. This fish is also very protective in defending their fry. They don't burrow or disturb plants.

     If kept in a community type environment, the tank mates need to be much larger with their own established territories. It is best to introduce the Daffodil Cichlid last. Some cichlids they can be kept with are others of their own genus such as the Lemon Cichlid Neolamprologus leleupi and the Cylinder Cichlid Neolamprologus cylindricus. Other species include some of the Altolamprologus genera, such as the White Pearly Calvus and the Compressed Cichlid; and the Julidochromis genera such as Mariner's Julie and the Convict Julie. It is best to avoid housing them with the African cichlids from Lake Malawi or Lake Victoria. 

Sexual Differences:    

    These fish are difficult to sex. Males are heavier bodied than the females, slightly bigger, and have a slightly larger forehead. Though it is hard to tell, the male also has longer and more pointed dorsal fin and anal fins. 

Breeding the Daffodil Brichardi

     In order to encourage spawning, the Daffodil Brichardi should be fed a diet of high protein for several weeks. These fish are egg layers and will deposit their eggs under driftwood or in rocky caves. A clay flowerpot positioned on its side will also provide a good spawning site.
     The best way to get the Daffodil Brichardi to breed is to place eight fry in a tank and allow them to find a mate. Chances are that there should be at least two pair of breeding mates in the group of eight. Once the fish are over two inches in length, they will be ready to breed.
     The eggs will hatch within four days and the fry can be fed baby brine shrimp or finely ground flake food. There is no need to isolate the fry because the parents will provide excellent care for their young.
     The Daffodil Brichardi is a prolific breeder and is an ideal fish for beginners who want to learn how to breed African Cichlids. Optimal water conditions should enhance the colors of this beautiful yellow fish and create a very attractive aquarium.

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